Skip to main content

Full text of "The sixth star"

See other formats








%bmea's PoliUcal History 1868-1915 

f ^; 

by Mae' Silver ^ (§ue, Cazaly 



3 1223 

05511 3782 


^ ' 


text by Mae Silver 
images by Sue Cazaly 

Copyright © 2000 Mac K. Silver 

Published by 

Ord Street Press 

71 Ord Street 

San Franeisco, GA 94114 

ISBN 0-9669913-1-1 
Printed in Canada 



Sixth .Star 

text by Mae Silver 
images by Sue Cazaly 


The Sixth Star 3 

This book is dedicated to the thousands of women who spent their 
hves in pursuit of the women's vote in Cahfornia. . . 

The Sixth (Star. 

4 The Sixth Star 

3 1223 05511 3782 

The Sixth Star 

West Coast suffragists crafted a flag with a star 

symbolizing the suffrage states of Wyoming, 

Colorado, Utah, Idaho and Washington. In 1911, 

when California women won their right to vote, 

California became the Sixth Star in the suffragist banner. 

The collection is in five parts: 

Introduction 7 

I. Beginning Years: 1868-1895 13 

II. The Fourth Star: 1896 Campaign . . .34 

III. Interim Years: 1897-1910 49 

IV The Sixth Star: 1911 Campaign 57 

V. The Road to Washington, D.C.: 1915 .79 

Trail of Light timeline 93 

Writing Notes 96 

Sources 99 

About the Author 103 

Index 107 

♦H^&«^^&4»^*^ The SixU) Alar 5 


The material used in this collection of California women's political his- 
tory came from the Bancroft Library, Berkeley; the California Historical 
Society, San Francisco; the California State Library, Sacramento; and 
the San Francisco Main Library. We wish to thank ever\' single member of the 
staffs of these great houses of San Francisco arehi\'es. Especially, we thank 
these members of the History Center of the San Francisco Main: Susan 
Goldstein, archi\ist, Pat Akre, Selby Collins, Stan Carroll, Tom C^arey 
Christina Morictta, Thos Fowler, Faun Mclnnis, Susie Taylor, and Andrea 
Grimes, who behaved not only as research assistants, but as cheerleaders. 
They supported us through the challenging times we spent shaping this 
unique collection. Wc thank Dr Luin Bonfield and Susan Shcr\vood of the 
Labor Archi\es and Research Center and Dr Sue Englander for their ideas 
and direction. 

On a separate note, we v\ish to thank Chris Carlsson, who caught the 
spirit of The SLxth Star and truly helped it rise on c\'ery page. 

Many thanks to t\pist Susan Pcdrick, Glenn Calcy Bachmann and edi- 
tor Rhona Simmons for their invaluable help in shaping the writing of this 

Our appreciation also goes to Donald Felton for his collaboration with 
Sue in creating a slideshow from this collection and refining images for 
the collection in the book. 

This collection of California women's political history is a California 
first. To this date, no one else has produced such an exhibition in the form 
of a book. At times we found some women's photographs without captions 
and did our best to put names in place. That, too, was historic! Our hope is 
to see this material used by students in this state where women should feel 
proud about the legacy of their political predecessors. You, the reader, have 
no need to leave your comfortable reading chair to find this women's polit- 
ical history. In the year 2000, we present Tlw Sixth Star to you with pleas- 
ure and joy 

Mae Silver and 
Sue Cazaly 

6 The Sixth Star ^h^^^i 

Women Vole 

111 :S States |.)r l.».,il m >Ji.i..l 
ullkcrs. Women voti- fur I'rcsl- 
dent, ami \')\ .ill otluT ntliciT'i 
on ci|ual tcrnis with incii in 



Why Not in California? 


New Zealand 

-In - 

Isle ot M;i 


-In- - 

Kngland Wales ^.'''.ida 

Ireland Iceland l)-nn,.nk 

Scotland Kansas Natal, (South \lrua)Sweden 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

"California Next" 

The 6ixth §taf : Intdoduction 

WTiile many books about California politics exist, surprisingly few 
trace the politics of California women. In the nineteenth century, San 
Francisco was the seat of the California women's movement, which began 
in 1868. From that \igorous mo\'ement came two benchmark elections, in 
1896 and 1911, when California men voted on a woman's suffrage amend- 
ment to the state constitution. Aside from Selina Solomons' first hand 
account, How We Won the Vote in 1911, there is not even one book about 
the two campaigns for woman's suffrage. Such an omission poorly serves 
an understanding and appreciation of the women's movement in San 

The .Sixth <Slar 7 

Francisco and the subsequent political history of California women. 

In addition to mounting two campaigns to win their right to vote, 
women also challenged certain cultural m\ths about them and their cir- 
cumstances. Taken in those days not as mvths, but as truths, these myths 
became arguments to further curtail women's rights in other areas. M\ths 
became legal arguments to exclude women from entrance to an institu- 
tion of learning or from engaging in certain professions. Other myths 
explain why women should not have the right to vote. These were the lead- 
ing myths: 

1. A woman is morally superior to man: she, alone, embodies purity and 


2. To engage in politics would taint and soil a woman's purity and good- 

ness and furthermore would unsex her. 

3. Women are inferior to men in terms of physical and mental dcNclop- 


4. Women arc more emotional than men. 

5. For a woman to run a household, bear and rear children requires little 

or no education. 

6. Every married woman would recci\e protection and support from her 

The next and last myth has taken much time to disprove, but during the 
nineteenth and twentieth centuries it was accepted as truth: 

7. If women got the right to vote, they would shut down the liquor industry. 

This last myth was a formidable obstacle facing the suffragists of this 
city. San Francisco had more liquor stores in it than any other city west of 
the Mississippi. 

The liquor lobby had a tremendous hold in San Francisco in both cen- 

8 The (Sixth Star 

turies. Historically, this coastal city advanced its commercial trade indus- 
try through hospitality that included spirits, food and gracious people. As 
in the early times of the founding of the United States, taverns housed 
meetings of important people who forged political documents and crafted 
events crucial to our country's founding. This custom continued in San 
Francisco as it burst from a sleepy village into a boomtown flooded with 
gold seekers from all over the world. In San Francisco the saloon replaced 
the old tavern as a place to meet, make deals, develop contacts, and con- 
duct business. San Francisco was a party town from its earliest days, and 
has retained that persona to the present day. Beyond this social custom 
involving good food and spirits was the fact that the city's economy and 
tax base became heavily reliant on its flourishing liquor business. 

The other obstacle placed by San Francisco was the fact that it had a 
greater population than any city in the west and in the state. Considering 
the city's powerful liquor interests; its population dominance in the state; 
and the m\th that voting women would shut down the liquor lobby, it was 
no wonder that the 1896 suffrage amendment failed. 

To their credit, suffragists did not intlame the liquor issue by con- 
fronting it publicly. Wliat they did underestimate was the population dom- 
inance San Francisco exerted oxer California in 1896. As San Francisco 
voted, so voted California. 

In the twentieth century, as the population of the state increased and 
spanned out from San Francisco, San Francisco lost its population lead. 
When the city voted in 1911 against the suffrage amendment, the 
Examiner and the Chronicle automatically declared the suffrage amend- 
ment dead again. Even the city's suffragists forgot to dismiss the city's 
anticipated negative votes and to question its population lead. They 
thought suffrage had lost again. The ("all reminded exeryone that all 
California votes were not vet in. Wlien the rest of California's votes 

The Sixth Siar 9 

affirmed the suffrage amendment, it was clear that San Francisco no 
longer spoke or voted for the entire state of California. 

Additional forces and conditions contributed to the success of suffrage 
in 1911. The affluence gained from an economy fueled by the gold rush 
and silver strikes provided the families of the suffragists with money and 
resources for the cause. Women such as Miranda Lux, Jane Stanford, 
Phoebe Hearst, Mary Sperry, Mary McHenry Keith, Selina Solomons, Jane 
Knox Goodrich, Sarah Wallis, Laura de Force Gordon, Georgiana Bruce 
Kirby, Caroline Severance, Clara Shortridge Foltz, Emily Pitts Stevens and 
Ellen Clark Sargent underwrote California women's suffrage from one cen- 
tury to the next. The continuity of the leadership of these women was 

The labor union movement, particularly strong and unique in San 
Francisco, supported women's right to vote. At the Labor Day parade in 
San Francisco, in September, 1911, Samuel Gompers, head of the 
American Federation of Labor, publicly endorsed women's suffrage. The 
only majority vote for woman suffrage in 1911 was from the working class 

At the dawn of the twentieth century, the progressive social-political 
reform movement in California, personified by such organizations as the 
anti-saloon associations, the Lincoln-Roosevelt Leagues, and the 
Nationalist (socialist) Clubs, permeated the state's politics. Almost the 
entire platform of the Lincoln-Roosevelt League became the proposed 
amendments to the state constitution voted on in the special election of 
October 10, 1911. The women's suffrage and women's eight-hour workday 
amendments passed with most of the other amendments. 

WTien the automobile and the telephone emerged as de\1ces nearly 
everyone could use, California women used these communication and 
mobility capabilities, especially in the 1911 suffrage campaign. 

10 The Sixth <Star ^^#i»«s 

Particularly, members of the College Equal Suffrage League used their 
"Blue Liner" open roadster to motor through the countryside and farm 
towns. Wlien the "Blue Liner" wheeled into town, parked at a corner and 
a college suffragist stood in the ear and began to speak, soon a crowd of 
men gathered around. The target audience suffragists wanted to reach was 
men. The car attracted the right audience. This was good public relations. 
WTicn votes were counted in 1911, college women thanked the California 
farmer who brought in the majority vote for women. 

The telephone compressed this large state into a more manageable 
campaign system. With quick and efficient communication, the phone 
saved hours of travel and provided the 1911 suffragists with expanded 
means to conduct a statewide campaign. 

These two political campaigns of 1896 and 1911 were not the only 
ways women fought for their rights and challenged the m>ths about them. 
In California women also founded clubs to discuss these issues and mount- 
ed the city's lecterns to disprove the m>'ths. They initiated lawsuits chal- 
lenging professions and institutions that denied them access. They craft- 
ed bills to replace discriminating laws and guided their passage into law. 
It took determination, energy, patience and time to disprove many of 
these myths and to gain their rights. 

Each time a woman challenged a myth, she was political. Following the 
example of their ancestors who exercised their political acumen even 
before the Revolutionary War, California women joined the noble endeav- 
or called politics and captured the Sixth Star for the suffragist banner. 

Mae Kramer Silver 
Jaimary 24, 2000 

The (Sixth 5.Lar U 

12 The Sixth Star 

The Besinning Years: 1868-1895 


^ vM^*'^^^^^*t3«>» t 

The SlxUi Slar 13 


L 1 



Laura deforce Gordon (1838-1907) 

In the nineteenth century, Americans lauded their first lady of the podium, Anna 
Dickinson, a Quaker. But Laura dcForce Gordon was California's own lady of the 
lectern. Credited with launching the suffrage movement with her speech in 1868, she 
was so fine a speaker, the Democrats hired her to stump for them. The Independent 
Party of San Joaquin County nominated her for the state senate and she ran in 1871 . 
She became California's second woman lawyer in 1879. Tragically, she died before her 
beginning efforts for suffrage materialized. 

14 The Sbcth Star 

Georgiana Bruce Kirby (1818-1887) 

Invited in 1850 to Santa Cruz by her friend Eliza Farnham, Georgiana Bruee came, 
married, prospered and became an outspoken ad^'ocate for women's rights. She and 
EHza scandalized the locals when they donned Turkish pants and rode horseback 
through the countryside. In 1871, when Emily Pitts Stevens chaperoned Susan B. 
Anthon\' and Elizabeth ('ady Stanton to Santa Cruz, they were well met by Geor^iana 
Kirby who arranged their speaking engagements and made sure their speeches were 
also well rcccixcd, because Geor^iana also reported for the Santa Cnis:, Sentinel. The 
radical, pro-suffrage presence in Santa Gruz prc\ailcd through the 1896 election when 
Santa Gruz men \x)tcd a majority to amend the state constitution to give women the 
right to Note. 


The Sixth Star 15 













forehead, ex!-;nni:ca wth asl^h: "Ah-Tou thould 
hav* bt^r. a boy. " That ended be r pleaanre : «he 
hurr'.ed to tT room and went tjitttrlr. Dad 't 


'• b: 

These unflattering pictures of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth (]ady Stanton 
(similar to criminal wanted posters) on their one and only trip together to San 
Francisco in 1871, showed the Chronicle's early anti-suffrage position. WTiile labeled 
champions of suffrage, they were also called female agitators. Hurt and disappointed 
at the poor response from her first speech in the city, Susan B. Anthony cancelled the 
rest of her city speeches. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, however, had the city eating out of 
her hand. In those early times, even a charismatic orator like Mrs. Stanton could not 
convince the Chronicle that suffrage was a matter that all citizens, even women, 
aspired to and needed. 

16 The Sbdh (Star 


flV^The CHRONICLE has the 
largest Circulation of any pa- 
per on the Pacific Coast. 


Sliall \ yomeaL Vot« ? 

Elizabeth Cxi>t. Stantok and S cr- 
Sijs B. Anthont have "both expatiated 
tm the rights of woman to suffrage, 
inthout acquainting the public with 
jmy oescntially new facts bearing upon 
t3ie subject or bringing out any argument 
tiftt has not been worn threadbare 
m. the lecture-rooms of the Eastern 
States. Mrs. Stakton is an earnest 
advocate of this modem idea of female 
Bofrage, and might make converts 
among those who listen to one side and 
beJiere all they hear and as resolutely 
refuse to listen to any refutation. TVe 
iavo heard nothia? in the point.'? mado by 
«itherofdioao ladies to lead as to the con- 
ehision that cither man or woman would bo 
"benefited by tho extension of tho privilege of 
T«tii:sr to tho latter. 

The Sixth SLar 17 

Woman Suffrage 

(From the San Francisco Chronicle, Feb. 4, 1870) 

Fiddle faddle! What's the use? 

You can't make her a man; 
The great Creator fashioned her 

On quite another plan. 
Man's joints are strong and firmly knit, 

His thews and sinews tough; 
But woman is of daintier mould, 

And formed of finer stuff. 

Men are the prose — the timber half 

Of this sad world of ours. 
And women are the poetry 
The sweet fern and the flowers. 
Throughout the blessed Book this thought 
Runs beautifully and clear, 
That woman lives to sanctify, 
To grace and to endear. 

Don't let her, then; be smirched and soiled 

By mingling in the fray. 
But keep her free from grosser acts 

To win her own sweet way. 
Let purity remain her shield. 

Without a blot or stain, 
To guard her mental bloom from taint 

Or touch of hand profane. 

18 The Sixth Star ^^i**^^^^*^^*^ 

Forbid it, Heaven. Forbid it, Fate! 

Forbid it, men of sense, 
That she herself should aid the plot 

To shame her own defense. 
She is all glorious as she is — 

Why should the fretting few 
Conspire to banish from her soul 

The fragrance and the dew? 

Why take away her chiefest charm — 
The crown that's hers by right, 

The quiet influence that compels 
Proud man to her own right? 

She knows her power — why can't the sex 
Remain contented, then. 

To rule us in the good old way? 

Lord love us all — ^Amen! 

^ ^m^^^ The Sixth <SLar 19 

Emily Pitts (?)tevens (1841-1906) 

A woman with an incredibly hi^h level of energy, Emily Pitts Stevens literally gath- 
ered the beginning threads of the women's movement and wove them into the cause 
for suffrage. She published the first journal for women's suffrage in the West. She was 
a member of the small group of July, 1869 patriots who formed the nucleus from 
which the California Woman Suffrage Association emerged in January, 1870. She and 
Laura dcForce Gordon organized and hosted Susan B. Anthony's and Elizabeth Gady 
Stanton's one and only trip to San Francisco together in 1871. With a keen passion 
for the abuses women endured in an uncaring society, she formed organizations and 
provided printing opportunities to employ and train young women. As a teacher, she 
pioneered a public evening school for girls in 1867. An activist, a publisher, a busi- 
nesswoman, a teacher, administrator, speaker and founder of organizations to bene- 
fit women and further suffrage, Emily Pitts Stevens' name should never be forgotten. 

20 The (Sixth Star 




This is the masthead of the Californici Sunday Mercury that Emily Pitts Stevens 
bought and turned into the first written voice of suffrage in the West. Reflecting her 
highly charged energetic style, Mrs. Pitts Stevens renamed the journal three times 
before finally settling on The Pioneer. Within 1865 to 1870, Mrs. Pitts Stevens hired 
women to set t>pe for her journal, promoted the all-woman Women's Go-operative 
Printing Union, and founded the Woman's Publishing Company. 

The Sixth Star 21 

Mrs. Julia Stevens Fish Schlesin^er, editor and 
publisher of The (Ainicr Dove, formerly a 
Spiritualist weekly for ehildren, expanded her 
Oakland publishing business to San Franeiseo in 
lcS7(). The Women's ('o-operative Printing Union 
landed this plum of a eommission. Soon, The 
Carrier Dove was seeond only to Emily Pitts 
Stevens' The Pioneer, the first suffraji^e publieation 
in the West. The Dove, therefore, pushed forward 
women's ri^ht to Note in California. 

22 The Sixth .Star ^"#gt«^ 


gle Numbers, 10 cts. 


Annual Subscription, $15t'. 

■AN FRANCISCO. CAL. ______«--^ 



The SbcLh Star 23 

In Astrea, Mrs Thorndyke wrote "Ode" to commemorate the first anniversary of 
the Woman's Suffrage Soeiety, San Franeiseo, Oetober, 1870. In May, 1869, the 
founders of the new National Woman Suffrage Association, Susan B. Anthony and 
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, appointed San Franeiseo's Elizabeth Sehenek \iee-president 
of the yet non-existent State Suffrage Association in California. The direction to Mrs. 
Sehenek was clear: go found the state association! That summer when Mrs. Sehenek 
and her radical friends heard Anna Dickinson lecture in San Francisco, they were 
aroused and inspired. The result was an "impromptu" founding, July 17, 1869, of the 
nucleus of the state suffrage association. President, Elizabeth Sehenek; \' ice- 
President, Emily Pitts Stevens; Recording Secretary, Nellie Hutchinson; 
Corresponding Secretary, Celia Curtis; Treasurer, Mrs. Corbett. After a series of 
fundraising lectures in the fall, the founding group organized a scries of meetings, 
January 26-30, 1870, when the California Woman Suffrage Association formalized. 
President, Sarah M. Wallis; Vice-Presidents, J. A. Collins, Rev. C.G. ^Vmcs, Mary W. 
Coggins; Secretaries. Mrs. Mc(iee, Mrs. Rider, Miss Perry; Treasurer, Mrs. Collins. 




-ThoughU that Hnatbr ui<l \Vi.nli< that Ki 


•AS rRAMcnru: 

24 The Sixth Star 



Written for the first anniversary of the 
Woman's Suffrage Society, 
San Francisco, October, 1870 

O.M-. yea! ago lo-day a Spartan band — 
riic liiK'sl. bravesL noblest of the land — 
Assembled in this city by the sea. 
Proclaiming boldly, woman nuisl he free! 
"The ballot gained, can aught else be denied! 
Let bigots sneer, for less have mailyrs died. 
We see the rmure: here we count the cost; 
The battle for the right is never lost." 
l>om small beginnings see the forest grow, 
The cities" tumult fill the vale below. 
Old Oceans heaving bosom covered o'er 
With stately ships, while on the teeming shore 
riie din of labor, every freeman's pride, 
Is moving commerce w ith a giant stride. 

But 'tis a bolder theme we sing to-night; 
riiese are bul shadows to the morning light. 
Lo woman comes! the ballot in her hand. 
Opening the portal to a structure grand, 
Enchantress of the future! five to steer 
The Ship of State beyond the breakers cleat ; 
Bringing her mother-love, sacred and pure. 
To bear upon the laws, for eiior s cure; 
Medeeming man from stern Mosaic rule 
That stamps its impress on our modern school; 
No more the subject ruled for selfish power, 
riie worshiped, fondled plaything of the hour. 
But natures (jueen in royal robes arrayed. 
I ler sceptre lo\<'. her throne the worlds arcade 

So we, to-night, recount with glowing pen 
The past years work, to be completd when 
Ihe Suffrage Ship is safely moored away 
With victorv sure, within some land-locked bay. 
Good friends be cheered! the present is aglow 
With hope and promise; all the past doth show 
A prophecy that time w ill render sure. 
Then watch and work and patiently eruiure. 
Humanitv with bleeding heart doth plead 
For woman s influence in this hour of need; 
The fabled story of poor Adam's fall 
Has reached a climax, in this modern thrall; 
The subject, woman, and the master, man. 
Hath brought the Nations under fearful ban. 

We ask a hearing; here we press our claim 
To our own birthright in a woman's name, 
Give us the Ballot; with it comes the power 
To right old wrongs; then consecrate this hour 
To woman's effort; all her latent strength 
Like pent-up forces, must assert itself, 
The noble river in its majesty 
.\mong green glades while sweeping to the sea. 
Dammed and diverted from its native course 
Bv artificial barriers of force, 
O'erflows its banks and inundates the land. 
Demoralizing all the work of man. 
So woman's nature, damned by man-made laws, 
O'ersteps all bounds, and man her brother, draws 
Into the vorte.x where they both must fall. 
Cursed by the tyranny that crushes all. 
Let nobler motives mow the people now. 
Before whose mandates even kinds tnust bow, 
1111 everv woman in Earth's broad domain 
Shall rend her fellers and easl oJJ'her chain. 


The Sixth Star 25 



t)RK, earnest woman, work! 

Nor lay your armor by; 
The morning brings a golden light, 

Born of the evening sky. 

Work, earnest souls, nor faint 
Before your task is done, 

The victor may the spoils enjoy. 
Your work is scarce begun. 

Then let your minds illume 
The misty troubled dream. 

Where ignorance, with blinding force. 
Pollutes life's flowing stream. 

The BALI .or! who may know 

How a woman's hand will bless. 

When vested with a freeman's right 
Her mandate to express. 

Take up the tuneful song. 
Heard by the favored few 

Whose souls to music are attuned. 
The brave alone are true. 

Then keep the goal in view. 
Inspiring heart and hand, 

Let woman's birthright be secured 
O'er all this favored land. 

Say not the way is dark, 

The end is yet afar; 
Work in the present, trusting still 

To truth's bright guiding star. 

There's fainting souls to cheer. 
Oppression's hand to stay. 

The dust of error gathers still 
About the pilgrim's way. 

The mountains and the vales 
Are speaking to the sea. 

In language potent as the storm, 
''Our daughters shall be free." 

Free as the mind is free. 
Speaking to high and low, 

A voice reverberates the land, 
"Let thou my people go." 

The Spiritualist book, Astrea, written by Mrs. 
Thorndyke (1885) contained this poem, clearly showing 
the tie between Spiritualism and suffrage. The religious 
overtones of "Labor is Worship," the plaintive plea for free- 
dom and liberty, and the agony of bondage all reveal the 
passion for suffrage in nineteenth century San Francisco. 

26 The Sixth Star 




Women's Co-operative Printing Onion, 



In this advertisement for the Women's Co-operative Printing Union in Carrie 
Young's West Coast Journal, May 18, 1870, note the name, L. Curtis, right at the hem- 
line of the printer's skirt. As teenagers, Leila Curtis and her sister Mary became fasci- 
nated with the process of copper engra\ing. Both parents, ha\ing a background in 
engra\'ing, encouraged their daughters' interest. Soon the sisters opened an cngra\ing 
shop in the carriage house of their San Francisco home at 1117 Pine Street. Mary 
became the draughtsman, i.e., the artist, and Leila, the block-cutter. That endeavor led 
to a shop downtown and e\entually a partnership called Crane and Curtis (1871). Mary 
withdrew from the business when she married Thomas Richardson in 1869. Her life's 
work became painting; the Richardson house became a meeca for artists and writers. 
Mary ('urtis Richardson became a well known, and \ery successful portraitist. Wlicn 
Leila married the New York portraitist Benoni Irving (1886), it was clear both sisters 
again, as in their early life, shared the rich, productive world of art. iVnother fascinat- 
ing part of the Curtis history pertains, possibly, to mother Ccilia. A Celia Curtis, note 
the different name spelling, was one of the July, 1869 patriots who pioneered the 
California Woman's Suffrage Association. Could it be that Ccilia and Celia were one and 
the same early suffragist in San Francisco? 


The &i\[h (Slar 27 

Ellen Clark Sargent 

28 The Sixth Star 

Ellen Clark Sargent (1826-19U) 

With her husband, Senator Aaron A. Sargent (Nevada City, Gal.), EUen Clark 
Sargent beeame an early major link between suffragists in California and Washington, 
D.C. The Sargents established an early relationship with Susan B. Anthony. Senator 
Sargent was the first person in the entire Congress who uttered the word "suffrage" 
and wrote a suffrage amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In 1872, when Ellen 
Sargent became secretary to the National Suffrage Association, her husband went "to 
bat" for Susan B. Anthony who was jailed for registering to vote — a federal offense. 
Actually, she was fined for registering to vote, and when she refused to pay the fine, 
she was incarcerated. Senator Sargent went to President Grant to intercede on behalf 
of Miss Anthony and, in effect, "sprung" the great lady from jail. 

The Sargent's home, wherever it was, was always open to all suffragists. At the time 
of the 1896 campaign, when Mrs. Sargent was president of the California Woman 
Suffrage Association, the Sargent home on Folsom Street was one of the main head- 
quarters for the suffrage vote. In 1888, when Julia Ward Howe came west to visit her 
sister in Marin County, she met at the home of Ellen Sargent, along with Phoebe A. 
Hearst, Sarah Dix Hamlin, Emma Sutro Merritt, M.D. and others. This was the group 
that founded the city's first woman's club, the Century Club, which still flourishes at 
1355 Franklin St. 

The impact of the Sargent family, including children George and Elizabeth, on the 
suffrage movement in California was inestimable. Only a few weeks, indeed, days, 
before women won their right to vote on October 10, 1911, Ellen Clark Sargent died. 
An unusual memorial, the first given to a woman at that time, was held, with 
Governor Hiram Johnson honoring her achievements in Union Square, San Francisco. 

'^'^^^fe^«tafe2*4^ The (Sixth Star 29 

Marietta Beers-6tow (1835-1902) 

This was Marietta Beers-Stow's pensive picture as it appeared in her 1876 book, 
Piobate Confiscation, her personal expose of the horrors and inequities of the 
Gahfornia Probate Court system, which she dubbed "the hi^h court of prostitution." 
Ha\ing just lost her husband, she was thrown into le^al limbo, as the Probate Court, 
creditors, etc., had first draw on her inheritance from her husband. All her furniture, 
even her writing desk, was confiscated for appraisal and she was reduced to asking a 
judge for money to cover her medical expenses. She approached the state legislature 
with a new law governing widows and children. She exclaimed, 

"The Probate Court grows fat on the meat of the 

starving widow and children. 

I've had wrongs 

To stir a fever in the blood of age, 

Or make the infant's sinews strong as steel." 

Still grieving for her husband at the time of this picture, Mrs. Stow wore a picture 
pin of her deceased husband, a customary practice of a widow active in mourning. In 
1882, Marietta Beers-Stow became the first woman to run for governor in the state 
of California. In 1884, she ran as vice-president of the United States to Belva 
Lockwood (Washington, D.C.), running for president. 

30 The Sixth Star 



The 1895 California Woman's Congress Association 
Board Members and staff 

Left to right, standing: Mrs. Louise A. Sorbier, Mrs. W E. Hall, Mrs. Charlotte 
Perkins Oilman, Mrs. George T. Gaden (Minne V.); seated, Mrs. Garrison Gerst, Mrs. 
Ada Van Pelt, Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper, Nellie Blessing Eyster. The famous feminist intel- 
leetual Charlotte Perkins Oilman was the staff person hired by Board President Sarah 
Cooper. In this pieture Mrs. Oilman stood behind Mrs. Cooper, her benefaetor, who 
sought out Mrs. Oilman to organize the first eongresses. As a single mother with a 
young child and an ailing mother, Mrs. Oilman was also strapped for funds. 
Reeognized for her talent and genius by loeal writers and suffragists, Charlotte 
Perkins Oilman reeei\'ed good support and encouragement from the San Francisco 
community. Mrs. (Oilman's gaze in this picture — at Mrs. (hooper and not the photog- 
rapher — perhaps showed her appreciation of Mrs. Cooper's help. 

Mm. Sorbier's foresight and sense of history left us her papers, images, and scrap- 
books coNcring suffrage from one century to the other as invriluablc resources for 
research at the California Historical Society. 


The Sixth Star 31 


(Long before cbe opening of the doora of the ball a Urge number of enthu»t«stlc followers of tbe Woman's CongreM aasem- 
bled on tbe »teps and dUcusaed among tbemaelve* tbe growth of tbe movement and the force of tbe arguments set forUl 
by tbe leading speakers of the day before.) 

"The Hand that Rocks the Cradle Rears the Patriot" was the subtheme of the 
1896 Woman's Congress theme of "Woman and Government". The Paeific Coast 
Woman's Press Association created the West Coast Woman's Congress Association 
that sponsored four women's congresses from 1894 through 1897. Each year, in late 
April or early May, congresses convened in San Francisco; the speakers and their sub- 
jects determined a specific theme. Accomplished women from the West Coast spoke 
for days, from morning till night. The Congresses were a smash hit, with women jam- 
ming every inch of space to get in and hear. The 1896 theme aroused California 
women to go for the \ote that November. 

32 The Sixth Star 

>B '«?P*a 


Sarah B. Cooper (1836^1896) 

The untimely death of suffragist Sarah Brown Cooper on the eve of her 60th birth- 
day stunned San Franciscans. Mrs. Cooper deftly organized events and institutions on 
behalf of children and women in the city. She founded the Golden Gate Kindergarten 
Association, a consortium of 50 kindergartens throughout the city. With outstanding 
administrative and leadership skills, she was vice-president of the Century Club, pres- 
ident and vice-president of the prestigious Women's Press Association, treasurer of 
the World Federation of Women's Clubs, director of the S.F Associated Charities 
board, and president for two years of the West Coast Woman's Congress board. She 
had recently turned her attention to the suffrage cause. Undoubtedly, had she lived, 
she would ha\c added her indcliiilc talents and dedication to the movement. 

As an example of the unseen work of sisterhood in early San Francisco, Miranda 
Lux, a woman of substantial means, aware of Mrs. Cooper's unique value to the com- 
munity, became her patron. She supported her and her daughter Ilattic with a com- 
fortable home and pnnisions. In this way, Mrs. ('ooper dcxotcd her full time and ener- 
gy on behalf of causes for San Francisco children and women. She continued that sis- 
terly circle of support when she singled out Mrs. (Charlotte Perkins Gilman and 
employed her to organize the first women's congress on the West (]oast. 



The (Sixth Star 33 


In 1892 at the posh Palace Hotel in 
downtown San Franciseo, Anna Janess 
Miller, editor and owner of her own maga- 
zine, Janess MUler Monthly, hosted a fash- 
ion show of her bifureated skirts. Through 
her periodical, she sold patterns and 
designs of the divided skirt, all the rage 
with the women's bieyele set. Curiously, in 
1851, another Miller, Elizabeth Smith 
Miller, eousin to Elizabeth Gady Stanton, 
originated the first woman's pants creation, 
the bloomer costume. The women's maga- 
zine Lily advocated the bloomer as a 
response to women's concern for the safety 
of wearing long skirts and the unsanitary 
conditions of long trailing skirts in contact 
with mud and dirt of unpaved streets. The 
bicycle craze that hit San Francisco around 
1895 provoked a need for a safe tangle-free costume for the new woman who want- 
ed her own wheels, another sign of a liberated, emancipated woman who wanted to 
move in her own time, rh\thm and place. 


34 The Sixth Star 

The Fourth (§tar: 
The 1896 Campaign 

Vote for the Woman suffrage 

NOV. 3 

Woman Suffrage State Headquarters, 

563, 664, 665 PARROTT BUILDING, 

In 1896, (California women hoped to eapture their ri^ht to vote, thereby addinjt^ 
their Fourth Star to the woman's suffrage banner. Women eould vote in Wyoming 
(1869), (Colorado (1893) and Utah (1896). 



The Sixth Star 35 

. V^-^lrt^U.. J . i 


36 The Sixth Star 


EB^__SAy FSA^ciscQ:._^Ei)xi:sDAX=;a:oRxi2i:G, jiryr. v 

Members of the National Woman Suffrage Association came to San Francisco in 1896 
to craft the 1896 campaign. T\vo Cahfornia women, Ellen Clark Sargent and Mary 
Mellenry Keith, headed families that unselfishly de\'oted resources and time to suffrage 
from the beginning to the end in (California. Their constant leadership insured the con- 
tinuity, strength and success of the suffrage movement in the state. 

clock-ivise from lower left 

1. Sarah B. Cooper 

2. Mrs. E.G. Smith* 

3. Ellen C. Sargent 

4. Mary Garrett 
P 5. Mrs. Goodrich"' 

6. Marv Swift" 

7. Dr. Anna H. Shaw 

8. Winifred Harper 

9. Ida II. Harper 

10. Susan B. Anthony 

11. Mary McHcnry Keith 
'educated f^uess by author 

The Sixth (Slar 37 

WILL LtAVt ! m\ 1 


l/oman SQffrafli5l:6 Wiff Cfiarge on tfe Demo- 
crat Trom Every Point of 
tfie ConiDa66. 

O ACRAMI.VTO. Jua» 1«.— Th* coodS'^oa o( rtHsfs li«r«. to ar &• i^* eatu* 

ra) e( •quAl ti(bu iM coeecrcfd. Ii*s cistcftd a&itr'.allr fr^a «!ut tc^u. 
car. four r**-~* *^ Then w* had rec«tved but lltt'.a cacourapaist la 
euraSona to Intaraic d«ltcat** la (a^or o( dt«lartac for ct« -ocsdlnf tatad- 
'B«att te tha- suit Coaatltutloa. N'o^ wa tiara ajauraacaa :ro ox Kortaaf ata 
vbo ara aotltlad to saata la ttxa Coovtadoa ball tbat ihtj *llt tuppar: aar 
plaifors plaok or r«aolucloa taa eauM w* ^ra *.« io batda for. 

Tba Icafltt. or paapblac. aaat out bf "Tta Exaalaar" tbla marala« la tba 

batt thing at ii» klad t^l I b«T« arar aaat;. and '^a (ood !t baa doaa ua caa>' 

L Bot ba oiaaaurad br vorda. It coatAlsad cci:1bobU!s troa Colorado ilu*. ara 

§ aatlralr aaw«Ad «t fraat ralusa te our cauM attbli particular tia*. W«, *b« 

' ara tba vorkart la tba eauaa. kaow bov te appraclau tbaia tbloc*. bacaaaa 

Wf k&»tr Oa affac: "tdar bar* f»r good op-«vU. 

iuat vbara w« wULataad t>«fot« 'JUa CoawBUea eaaset ba Aatacalaad sa^ 
Ul tba Comaietaaoa nauorm aad Raaoiutloaa baa baaa orraalxad aad wa ttr* 
tmi tba opportualty te pr«a*frt to It our elalaji (or racofsitioa. la tba saas- 
tlsa It la aot too mucb te tar'tSat »a bara atcur«d.tba pIadct*o(aaar tadl 
ridual dalantaa. aad tbat aem< alL^:^a dalafattoRi bara plad^ad tbamaelrtrt* 
•upport a woaaa runura ptaak la tb« ^artr plaCora. I Bar al«e tar .tbat 
wa bare aesa frVaoda ea tba coi&raTRaa. t«< wa ara alt but eartaXa o( aoaa 
•ert of raeocaltloa. 

Our wiab la. of eouraa. to bara tba caaalttaa adpst tba plaak va bava 
praparad aa4 wUl praaaat for lu conitatratloa. Fatllac la tbli. wa azpwct 
•ur trlaada to prapara a aiaorltr report. «>!lcb will ba prtiaatad to tba ees- 
Taatloa. Br tbla aaaai wa will fat tba aubjaet bafora tbac bi>dr. aad It wHl 
tban daptad opoa tba rotat of tba wbola bodr of dalacatas to alCbar accept or 

DurlDC tba ooatba.ot Jvlr aaJ August wa shall saad spaakirs lata arary 
tewa aad baslat la tbaStata of Cal^fO^Bla. .vslda froe tbis. wt txpaet lanta- 
itoas to spaak la all partr aaadncs oa tba »-9B&a->u?.-t«a piack. Ou.' woata 
eratort wUl ba ksowB br tbair advgcacr of tbi propasxd aacoaaant aad for 
Aoiblac alaa T^*r will ba imtrjciri U2 rtlsr n aa lar la. iRX OACU aaaaufa 
or partr fr'.e'ranca. la fact, to far aa our caapalfa !i eoaccraad. wa sbCl '*t*9 
ouraatras antlrelr ouulda aar aad all tasuts of tba rarlout 9o!i:::al partUs, 
and eoaflna our attaatloa whoUr aad soieir to tba causa of *qua! rigbta. 

If tba Oaaocratlc partr falls to Ir.dorsa tba plaak tbat ft propota to pra- 
aaat to tbU eoavaatloB, It wUI. br lo dotag. lose- tba frttadsbip of a graat aa- 
Jorttr o( tba woaaa of tbla Suu. A^ tba caaa aow staads. cbt oibar tbraa polit- 
ical parties bare, br adoptlag our piaak. dpaaad tbt doors at tbtir aeat.a^a to 
eur tpaakars. Sbsuld (b* Damocrats fair to do Uktwlia. It tuaU to raaxca '.ba; 
tbar will tbcrsbr ailacatk tba srapatbr of tbt Oaaocratlc wsxtc of rbt Su:a. 
Oaa-tavaatb of tbt tajus la California are paii if wooito. aaJ :t t on.r aatural 
tbat tbar sbeuld wUb to bare aoaa roifta :'u tba aactar of. tbt cxpaaditura of 
Bonty. Tbraa poUtlcar partita bara daelartd tbtaialT«» as b«:3j la n^-jr jf 
(ranting tbtm tbla rtgbt: (t aow i^aaiof to ba seen wbtibtr or ao; tbt 3ta3- 
cratit partr w ill do 4» aucb. iVSAN B ANTHCNY 

In the summer of 1896, the leaders of the national suffra;[^c moxement came to 
California to show California suffragists how to eonduet their first campaign to eon- 
\ince men to vote for a state constitutional amendment for women's suffrage. Susan 
B. Anthony led the way, and the California suffrage leaders followed and learned how 
to present their case for suffrage to the men's political parties. "Charging the 
Democrats from every point of the compass" was a marvelous metaphor, but it did 
not budge the Democrats, who never included suffrage in their platform. Although 
the article by Susan B. Anthony was shortened (by this writer) to fit the page struc- 
ture, the writing is \1ntage Anthony, showing her style and approach to politics. 

38 The Aixlh .Star 

This familiar photograph of suffragists still remains, since 1896, fully uncap- 
tioned. First row, left to right: Luey Anthony, Dr. Anna Shaw, Susan B. Anthony, Ellen 
G. Sargent, Mary Hays; seeond row, left to right: Ida Husted Harper, Selina Solomons, 
Carrie Chapman Gatt, Anne Bidwell. This picture shows the national figures — note 
the tiny flags pinned on their dresses-and the locals, i.e., the 1896 campaign team. 



The Sixth Star 39 

Mary McHenry Keith (1855-1947) 

As tlic first woman graduate of the 
IIastin;[^s School of the Law (San 
Francisco) in hSSl, Mary McIIcnry Keith 
used her knowledge of the hiw for a com- 
mitment to women's suffrage that 
spanned two centuries. Wilham Keith, an 
ardent suffrni^ist and brilhant landscape 
artist, and Mrs. Keith opened their home 
to members of the national and local suf- 
frage movement from beginning to end. 
The Keiths were personal friends of Susan 
B. Anthony. It was to Mrs. Keith that Miss 
Anthony entrusted the leadership for the 1911 suffrage campaign in the state. In 
1911, two women who had a relationship to law and the Hastings School of the Law, 
were two key suffrage leaders in the state. Mary McHenry Keith was the Northern 
California leader; Clara Shortridge Foltz led Southern California. 

Her hometown, Berkeley, called her ''Berkeley's Mother of Suffrage." As the only 
town in the counties of Alameda and San Francisco that voted for suffrage — not only 
in 1896 but again in 1911 — one might say that Mary McHenry Keith had mothered 
Berkeley well. In this picture, Mrs. Keith wore a yellow silk rose boutonniere, a s\Tn- 
bol of the suffrage moxement. 

40 The &L\lh Star 






Mary McHemy Keith 

possibly at the time of her graduation from the Hastings School of the Law. 


The SLxlh <SLar 41 




... Woman Suffrage Association 


On Saturday Evening, April 2jtJi, iSq^, 



Hon. J. K. McComas, Pomona. 


Mesdames Mary K. Threldkeld, Sarah A. McClees, M. Rorton Williamson, 

Hester A. Harland, Margaret V. Longley. 

Mi<ise.s Harland, Teal, Hazletiiie, North and James. 


The men of Berkeley, California grabbed hold of the woman suffrage eause and 
never let go. In the 1896 eleetion, Berkeley was the only plaee in San Francisco and 
Alameda counties that gave a majority vote for the suffrage amendment. WTicn the 
franchise vote was put to Berkeley men again in 1911, they once again voted in favor 
of the women's suffrage amendment. 

42 The Sixth Star ^hm*^^^^*m*^ 

Folllleal Iguality! 



M Orgaiiisr Woiui's Si&ige kiciatiois, 

Monday Evening, Nov. 18th, 


Berkeley resident Hester A. Harland (1857-1940) was an effeetive, effervescent 
speaker and organizer from one century into the next. As testimony of her sense of his- 
tory, she left a fine collection of clippings, campaign ephemera, letters and notes one 
can read at the Bancroft Library. This handbill for the 1896 campaign rctlects her high 
spirit and energy. 


The Sixth Slar 43 

Clara Shortridge Folt^ (1849-1934) 

44 The Sixth Star 

A southern (]alif()rnia suffrage leader and (California's first woman lawyer, Clara 
Shortrid^e Foltz fi;[^ured prominently in the 1911 eampaij^n. After her family moved 
to the Santa Clara area, she hc^im to read for the law. She wrote the Woman Lawyers' 
Bill, and with her friend Laura deForce Gordon, she championed the bill which gave 
women the right to practice law in (California. She sued Hastings School of the Law 
for not admitting women and with Laura deForce (iordon, eomineingly argued the 
case in court. They won. \Mien she moved to Los Angeles, (Clara Foltz devoted the full 
resources of her law practice to suffrage. Since it was the Notes from the men of Los 
Angeles and the "cow counties" that created the majority vote for suffrage, the influ- 
ence of (California's 'Tortia of the Pacific" can never be underestimated. 


The (Sixth Star 45 



•;r- ^T^^^^^^^^^^r^" 


The Examiner characterized the November, 1896 election as orderly and quiet. 
Inter-spersed in this same article were Jimmy Swinnerton's cartoons that showed per- 
haps a different behavior linked to liquor consumption. His cartoons were worth a thou- 
sand words. 

46 The Sixth Star 

This campaign badge was silky yellow, 
fringed at both ends. Yellow, or more precisely, 
California gold, was the official color of the suf- 
frage movement and campaigns in California. 
On November 3, 1896, a majority of 20,000 San 
Francisco men voted against the proposed 
amendment to the state constitution giving 
California women the right to vote. The amend- 
ment listed last, No. 6 on the ballot, attracted, 
according to the San Francisco Examiner, 
"...many more votes... than any of the other 5 
amendments proposed." Implied in this obser- 
vation was the idea that the heavy hand of the 
liquor establishment had directed even the 
most inebriated fingers to mark an "X" on the 
last box of the amendment ballot. Suffragists 
had tried to prevent their amendment from 
being either first or last and secured, they 
thought, an agreement from the appropriate 
state official to keep their amendment in the 
middle of the list. They were dismayed and 
shocked to see their amendment listed last. 

Smarting from this defeat, California suffra- 
gists met two days later, November 5 and 6, at 
Golden Gate Hall, San Francisco. Their eyes 
were on the next campaign. The fight was not 






November 6 and 6 


:.%?•.■■■■• ! 





The Sixth Star 47 

48 The 6ixth Star 

The Interim Years: 1897-1910 


Vol. I. Official Journal of the "Washington and California Equal Suffrage Associations. No. 14 


Edited by Laura Bride Powers 

Equal Suffrage News 
Civics-Local Politics 
Chibs and Club Women' 
Art and the Artists 


Worthwhile Books 

Foyer and Footlights 

Good Roads-Motoring 




Monthly Advocate Of Political Equality And Allied Interests 


Mill Valley. 






ABBIE C. HOWE. Proprietor 

The Stxlh Star 49 

• In viotorj only do the brave eiuKo tt> Mithl '■ -K. Srt^l (n;,i,Krr. 


Friday. October 24th 

9 A. m. to 9i30 m. m. 


txECLiivK Committee Meeting 
lOiOO A. m. 

Delegate vveeting 
Mrs. Geo. Haight 

Reading of Minutes 
announce.ment of Committees 

Reports of Officers 
REPORTS of County Societies 

Friday Afternoon, October 24th 

2 p. m. 

Susan B. Anthony Greetings 

Dr. UoRolHtA .Moore Municipal Ortice 

Dr. .MlNOkA KlBBE Hri)m Partial to impartial Suffrage 

Mi.s.s hLIZABblH MURRAY Recitation, Sally Ann's bxperience 

//)■ Anna Calint Hall 
Mk. T. G. SAWKINS..H0W Univer.sal Suffrage wa;? secured in Australia 

Mrs. J. M REYNOLDS Greetings — Woman's Socialist Union 

Mrs. Florence Kendall Consumers' League 

Mrs LUCRKFIa .N. I avlor.. Some Latter Day Aspects of the Suffrage 


.V\rs J. t) l.hMMON Forestry 

v\ks. FLoki.Ncb Ja(.k^(;)s Stoddard Adult hducanon 

50 The (Stxth Star 

I .oKruiiii-iilK iltTtvf ilH-lr JUKI |M>wiTs (n)ni I hi- coumcuI of the KuviTifitl ' 

Fridar Evening, October 24th 

O p. m. 

Harmony Quintette " Estudiantina" 

Mrs, A. T. FLETCHER Mrs. JOHN Madden 

Miss GussiE Newport Mrs. Rcjbert Lloyd hDITH ADAMS, at tht- Piano 

BENJAMIN Fay .Mills Address— What it Women Should Vote 

Harmony Quintette " Anme Laurie" 

S«t\irclay, October 25tH 

10 ». m. 

Report of Credentials Committee 

KEPt)RT OF Chairman on Organization 

amendments h) the constitution 

Election of officers 



Saturday. October 25tH 
S p. m. 

Dr. David Starr Jordan ...What the 20th Century Demands of our 

Young Women 

v\is A. T. Fletcher Vocal Solo 

Mrs. W ILLIAM Keith Co-Education 

Miss ADA L. A. MURCOTT Status of Women in Australia 

Miss Mabel Clare Craft... .Trend of Women's Clubs toward Public 


Miss SLSANNE R. Patch Library Work in California 

Mrs. M. H loNIS..Commuiiit\ Property Rights ot Husband and Wife 

Susan B. Anthony w^as back in San Francisco in 1902 as the lead speaker, giving 
greetings to the delegates of the annual convention of the California Woman Suffrage 
Association at (Century Hall, 1215 Sutter, between Polk and Van Ness. Note the mes- 
sages at the top of each page of the program: "In victory only do the brave cease to 
fight," and, "Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the gov- 

The Sixth Star 51 

This was California's suffrage leader MaryMcHenry Keiths badge to the national 
eonvention of the National Ameriean Woman Suffrage Assoeiation in Portland. 
Oregon. NAWSA eelebrated Saeajawea's remarkable and heroie eontributions to the 
sueeess of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Not only a linguist and a seout, but with 
a elear mind and quiek hand, it was Saeajawea who retriexed Lewis and Clark's jour- 
nals during an accident when their canoe capsized. 

52 The SLxlh Star 

Nellie Holbrook Dlinn 

A crackerjack of a speaker, this blonde, blue-eyed suffragist defied the oft-used 
stereot>pe of the suffragist as a dour old woman. A teaeher at the a^e of 13, she 
matured into a powerful speaker who eould projeet her xoiee to the last row of an out- 
door ^atherin^. Her sta^e presenee eould eounter ^raeefully exen the fiereest bad^er- 
in^ from anti-suffra^ists in the audienee. She was so winning and eapable, politieians 
hired her to eampaign for them. 

Her talents ineluded organizing. In San Franeiseo, at the 1906 suffrage eonvention, 
o\ertlo\\ing with enthusiastie women undaunted by the presenee of the devastation of 
the great earthquake and fire, Mrs. Blinn proposed reorganizing the entire state in the 
ehain-of-eommand strueture that served the Los Angeles area so sueeessfully during the 
1896 election. 

"***" " The 6bdh &[ar 53 

Leading a march August 27, 1908, in Oakland of three hundred of the most influ- 
ential California suffragists were: (left to right) Lillian Harris Coffin, Mrs. Theodore 
Pinther, Jr. and Mrs. Theodore Pinther, Sr. Mrs. Pinther, Jr. held the silk banner she 
sewed in California gold and Paeific blue. Although this impressive march, organized 
by Lillian Coffin, had little noticeable effect on the Republicans, it undoubtedly gal- 
vanized the suffragists for their next try for the vote. 

54 The (Sixth <Star 


Lillian Harris Cofiin 

As bold and brainy as she was beautiful, Lillian Harris Coffin was the ehicf lobby- 
ist for the California Equal Woman Suffrage Association, aka California Woman 
Suffrage Association. She knew the legislators well and they knew her. She rarely for- 
got promises for suffrage made by legislators, and then held them to their word... or 
else. She taught other members of the Suffrage Association how to lobby, to organ- 
ize, and to exert their leadership on behalf of suffrage. Suffragists never forgot her 
marvelous march in downtown Oakland to the state Republican convention. 

<Sl *t^^Ci 

The Sixth Star 55 

56 The Sixth .Star 

The (§ixth 6tar: 19U Campaign 

Hot? in 

&rlina i^oUratottB 

QP *9^**Cr)^^ 

The Sixth Star 57 

(fclina Solomons (1862-1942) 

This pose by Selina Solomons said a lot about her fiery, in-your-faee sassincss, li\'e- 
liness, and uneonventional and bright spirit. She said, "Oetober 10, 1911 proved to 
be the greatest day in my life...." 

Selina Solomons was a pioneer in suffrage, serving the cause from one century to 
the next. Also, she ventured into suffrage leadership, an activity most Jewish women 
passed by in favor of club participation. She lectured on the subject "The 
Matriarchate" at the Woman's Congress, May 25, 1895. Again, she distinguished her- 
self as a leader, in that she was one of a handful of women speakers who held no 
degree higher than a high school diploma. She had established her credibility as a 

Selina began her version of the 1911 suffrage campaign a year earlier than the 
official one! On February 15, 1910, she opened the Votes-for-Women Club in a large 

58 The Sixth Star 



Justice to 
California Women 

WOMEN VOTE on some questions in 
Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Illinois 
Kentucky and in 26 other states. 

WOMEN VOTE equally with men in 
Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Idaho and 

u/hy not in California? 

loft in the retail district of 
San Francisco, at 315 Sutter 
Street. The space housed a 
rest room, reading room, 
scr\'inj^ room and kitchen. 
For five cents, one could 
lunch from a temptin;^ buf- 
fet. Aimed specifically at the 
local women clerks and 
salesgirls, it also attracted 
women shoppers. 

Once she had the place, Selina turned it into a headquarters for suffrage. With no 
endowment, she managed the Club as self-supporting. She organized a men's auxil- 
iary, the membership to which required dues. A suffrage bazaar, during the holidays, 
sold merchandise. A women's congress presented scheduled lecturers, but there were 
impromptu speakers as well. Suffrage posters hung on the walls; suffrage reading 
material abounded; plays were performed. She produced handbills, postcards and 
handouts with the suffrage message. Selina was a d>Tiamo. And she organized pro-suf- 
frage demonstrations. 

As part of the campaign the next year, Selina wrote her suffrage play. The CAri 
from Colorado, supposedly while she was resting in Yosemite Valley, likely at her 
brother Theodore's cabin. Five characters engaged in a light romantic comedy about 
Aunty Suffridge's conversion from non-suffrage to suffrage. The New Women 
Publishing Company in San Francisco printed the play. The play was staged repeat- 
edly during the last days of the suffrage struggle. 

On the fateful day of the election, October 10, 1911, Gail Laughlin, a Colorado 
attorney and chair of the Election Day Committee noted fraudulent voting in North 
Beach, often linked to the inebriation of either voters or voting officials. As predict- 
ed, San Francisco men voted suffrage down for the second time. But all the rest of 
the votes of the state were not yet in. San Francisco suffragists held their breath for 
good news. 

Selina recalled, "We had kept back our womanish tears on that Black Wednesday. 
Now we ga\c free rein to our emotions, in both manly and womanly fashion, with 
handshaking and back-slapping, as well as hugging and kissing one another." The 
ordeal was exhausting and "...not until a month later could we summon the nervous 
energy to plan and carry out a celebration of our own on a fitting scale — a big jubilee 
banquet, the last and best of all suffrage banquets held in San Francisco." 

Selina Solomons published H(yw We Won the Vote in 1912. 


The Sixth &[ar 59 

Votes for Women Votes for Women 

Equal Suffrage Map of the United States, iqoq 

For tKe Long WorK Day 
For the Taxes We Pay 
For the Lav^s We Obey 
We Want Something to Say. 

Men and women vote on equal terms for all officers, even for presidential electors, 
in 4 of the United States. In 25 other states women have partial suffrage. 

California Women have no Votes 

Printed by California Equul Suffrage Aaa'n 

Price, on«-balf cent cacti 

Address: Vutca for Womea, 61 1 Oilman St., Palo Alto 

60 The <SL\ih &[ar 

^9 'e?y*'i 


PF^I 21 EI 



Wlicn the College Equal SutYniftc League offered a prize of $50 for a Nbtes-for- 
W'omen poster. Bertha Boye won it with this ^rand entry. 


<® •■-->•. )^^,^l?;*^* 

The (Sixth Star 61 

Buy a Broom! 

Charlotte Perkins Gilman took the popular 1860's son^, "Buy a Broom," gave it 
words and named it "Another Star," referring to California as the sLxth star in the suf- 
frage banner. The original words to the song parody a Bavarian drinking song with 
hausfrau ideas about "brushing away insects that annoy you," and sweeping all "vex- 
atious intruders away." Leave it to Mrs. Oilman's inventive, plav^'ul mind to take a 
song about sweeping, brushing and cleaning and nearly turn it into a marching song 
about the woman's ballot. The concept that women would clean up the world of pol- 
itics with their vote, like cleaning one's own house of vexatious creatures with a 
broom, became a sub-theme of the women's suffrage movement. An idea we still hear 

62 The (Sixth Star 


This is the original son^sheet, ca. 1860, of "Buy A Broom," the Bavarian Girls' 
son^, to vvhieh Charlotte Perkins Oilman wrote "Another Star." Referring to the sixth 
5tar in the suffragists' banner, this song became an official song of the 1911 
California women's suffrage campaign. 

fo »'rn*'i a««> fn»er.tK thM «nnt»tinir<i !*nnov you, F.r^ winter comes on for iiw*^( home ioon H^pailin^ 
U\\ hll-l It rjT'lte 'in.fv to use m2,h\ und fldy: Mv Kills (..r your favour m^aiii III resume; 

inJi ift'nt Wtter eren i?e pray c^^n emp'"v you . 
li Jin to twee p nil vex«t!ou« uitni l^rs *wnv. 
^'lluy * Broom. Buy a Rroom,(S|'V>n Buy « It room i 
AikI sweep til vexatious tutruf1<>rs «w«y . 

Ami w! I*» e;ni(itu(1es t«»sr id my ^yeW l»»'.V'*"-'. 
Blrss tl." ♦Mil" tliRt I (unie liere aii'l (TifiWuy n I r»»ii» 
Buy n Br ■ini.Biiv a Brooni,( s,.iii>n Buv » Broom» 
Bless \\.o ttni<- tint I f niiio hcTf ati'lfTied huv »l*r 

— SI'OKK \ 

Ym.I shall no hack to my own Country, and telltliem tlnre.I boM all my warea in America. Singing 

f 1 r • F ^.^±;^ fep^::^i ^L^UjJ 

O BieiD liel>«r Au ^us tin.Au- ^us tin, Au i,u% tin, O mem Iiel>er 

^^l^^rt ^^P^^i^feta! 

Aurh toll lin in dem dreck O mnn lieher Au gus tin Al _ lea ut wen . 





The Sixth Star 63 

Another Star 

Tune: "Buy a Broom" 

Charlotte Perkins Oilman in The ForeRunner for March, 191 1 

There are five a-light before us, 
In the flag flying o'er us, 
There'll be six on next election — 

We bring a new star! 
We are coming like the others. 
Free Sisters, Free Brothers, 
In the pride of our affection 

For California. 

A ballot for the Lady! 
for the Home and for the Baby! 
Come, vote ye for the Lady, 
The Baby, the Home! 

Star of hope and Star of Beauty ! 

Of Freedom ! of Duty ! 

Star of Childhood's new protection, 

That rises so high ! 
We will work for it together, 
In the golden, gay weather, 
And we'll have it next election,, 

Or we will know why. 

A ballot for the Lady' 
For the Home and for the Baby! 
Come, vote ye for the Lady, 
The Baby, the Home! 

Adopted by the Executive Board of California Equal Suffrage Assn. 
as an official campaign song. Printed in Palo Alto. <^|p» 3 

64 The Sixth SLar ^h^^^ 

Elizabeth Lowe Watson 

As President of the California Equal Suffrage Association, aka the California 
Woman Suffrage Association, from 1909 to 1911, Mrs. Watson saw her dream come 
true for California women. Earlier, her personal quest for emancipation led her to 
become a pastor in the First Spiritualist Union of San Francisco (1896). For her 
friend and ardent suffragist, Georgiana Bruce Kirby, she delivered the funeral oration 
in Santa Cruz (1887). 

^.^Mhi^^^^s^a^^s*,^ The Sixth Star 63 

Berkeley Suffrage Campaign Headquarter^ 


You are cordially invited to come to our Head- 
quarters and identify yourself with the campaiji;n 
through which we aim to secure full citizenship for 
the women of California, 

As the Amendment to the State Constitution 
ji;ranting Suffrage to Women is to he voted upon 
at a special election on Odlober tenth we have hut 
a few months in which to work. Will you give 
us all possible help, and personally take part in the 
movement which aims to make California a broader, 
better and more reprksentai ive Staie? 


Headquarters open daily. 

Open meetings every Wednesday afternoon 
at 2:30. 

Literature for circulation. 

Very truly yours, 


Mrs. Geo. W. HaiK'ht 
Mrs. Win. Keith 
Mrs. John Snook 
Mrs. Fre<l O. Athearn 
Mrs. Irvinvf M. Scott, Jr. 
Dr. Helen Waterman 
Mrs. Samuel C. Hai>jht 
Mrs. .Aaron C. Sohloss 
Mrs, T. B. Sears 
Mrs. C. C. Hall 
Mrs. Frank K. Bunker 

66 The .SLxlh Star ^^&*^^^^»M*« 




BECAUSE women mmt obey the Uw* just «s men do. 

They should vote equally mnth 
BECAUSE women pay taxes joat as men do, thus supporting the gtjvernmcnt. 

They should vote ei^ually with 
BECAUSE women sutler from bad government juai as men dr 

Thev should vo- 
BECAUSE mothers want to make their chil roundin 

...1 . . ■ u 

BECAUSE over 5,ooo»ooo women 

health and that of our fururc 

working conditions that can otilv ^ v r 

They -.. 
BECAUSE women of leisure who attempt ro serve the ju 

able to supporr rheir advice hy thctr votes, 

IJiev shoul.i 
BECAUSE busy housemothers and professional wonu ' 

service, and can ont'^ ' ' *' 

busy man — nanielv, 

BECAUSE women neetl to he trained to a en* 
bility, and such sense tlevelopes hv u'=r. 

BECAUSE women are consumers, and CO- ccatui'cm, 

V should Vo 

BECAUSE women are citizens of a governmcnr of the peop. 
for the jKfjple, and women are pc<>f^' 

n 111 jiolitu 
vM'li men* 


WOMEN Need It 

MEN Need It. 

The STATE Need. It 



Women Ought To GIVE Their Help. 
Men Ought To HAVE Their HAp. 
The SUle Our^' ' . c. —,1 ,, - 


H — dquartcrs : Room 212 Metropotttao Ule Butldiaf 


The (Sixth (Star 67 

WilAN li Yi 




68 The .Sixth .Star 



stains ExiiC' 


nics Charges 
s iind IS 


:'.i .s».i.- 

l.>|Ill.'•r^ ..i!l«».l 
'lijli iiiif<» Aiil>-r • 

..r lil.lfi':'- 

,.( .Ill- >>t .l!i.' 
Ml lilt- lii.-tMiy 
rj|...«r..i.i.r ■>\ 

nHr..(i'..l 111'- 

! Officers of Local 
Auxiliary of the 

Printers' Union 

Superior J 11^ 

^ i1 

Court Says I 

Mow t.. h^gjli 
ri>mnn n .y 
»tni<k hy \fuAi 

ls.<»ii<- ii whi 
JTlnclpal jl'4ai! 


ilH IL pUplU 

In rt-ftixlrijfr 
lliiiit sai<i| (.IihI 
!itriictl<.n yftlfi 
ut'On two MUtm 
p>Tr«f.n. eMIifr I 
- fr;iiM-nlly| wS 
pnhlli- Hchooil .•*» 

Minna O'Donnell 

Minna O'Donnell represented the vigorous level of labor's support on behalf of 
woman suffrage in San Franeiseo from 1909-1911, when the Union Labor Party's can- 
didate, Patrick McCarthy was mayor of the city. He came out for woman suffrage. 
Louise LaRue, head of Waitresses' Local #48, started the Wage Earner's Suffrage 
League in the city. Minna O'Donnell joined LaRue in leadership of the League. When 
Maud Younger became the third side of this triangle, she brought the middle class 
suffragists and the working class women together on behalf of suffrage. The League's 
action likely led to the precious few majority votes women won in the precincts of the 
working class neighborhoods of San Francisco. 

The Sixth Star 69 

nhy Wage-Eaniiiig 

Women Should Vote 

By Maud Younger. 

^: > ;iaou k^onu'U in the ^....^.j . ...v, .imv Iv. 

their homes tu go out iti the worlii and ttieht besUle men for their Im 
They work iii^dcr greater tlisailvantaKv.s and toinptatton'^ than men, 
work for longer hours an«l lower wa^c-. they bear the greater btM 
of Ottr industrial system >.t t'. not the protection which 

liave of the balbt 

Good law> .i: ;M,ce»sary to the woman, for 

moth'er of the next (<< luration. and upcm the conditions under which 
work>» depends largely the health of Ijerselt and of her children ' 
stunted growth and impaired vitality of the i£ngh<»h working peO| 
to-day are the dire«t results oi lack of levjislation in their l>eh:ilf wh< 
the introductK.ii i»f injolufUMv made pos^ihie th*- griat ex^v|.,l•:,tlon 

It IS OI the utiiio--i importance that tlicre >hould be good factory 
that a woman should work under sanitary conditions with prote* 
fur life and limb, that &he should not work long hours, nor late at nigl 
etc. Yet she has no rcprcNt niativc- • - ' - - - ^i ' ,v 
necessary to her and the community 

The women of California are in daily competition with Asiatics. Tl 
have a con>tatit stru>;gle to maintain wages and conditions under whi< 
white women can w<»rk and li\«. Yet. the native-born Chinese have 
weapon far more powerful than any that she has. Tin y can vote {< 
the law-makers who govern lur. and she cannot. 

The workimj women '»f California have gained everything thei 
selves, inch by inch, through the Union. Without a voice in the govei 
ment. they turn to the Union iui piutc^tion. They give it their 
giance. Kut the Cnion cutinot do everything. They need good laws tO 
protect th< m at home a- well as at work. And they need good ' 
far more than the rich If food is impure, trust prices exorb"^ 
dwelling l:<u-»- unsanitary, public schools bad, public hospitals poOr» 
' cars ab<vminable. police protection inadetjuate, the rich can pay 
vate service. Tlie poor have no choice. 

x-9'Q things directly concern women. Her home, her chil ' 

ail- i.v >pccial province- • !• ■ demand 

for tht ir pntection. 

Tlier^ ^^ o ways i" -.imuc law- 

V\ lue ear nnot atlord "inthicnce." 

laws till 

lis .. i >•.. « 

b\ '••' \onv 

'•^ws nece 

by vote anu t)y "influer 
Thty ijiust elect men 
a in the in" 
.ai it. An 
k- a demand l> 
tnd thre-itt-nv 

70 The (Sixth Star 


tliey must con- 
•re •'-- ' — '•'■ - 

Maud Younger (1870-1936) 

As a San Francisco socialite for her first thirty years, 
Maud Younger could haxe H\ed comfortably. A chance, 
almost quirky tv\1st, changed her life forever. Goinjt^ 
through New York City on the way to Paris to visit her 
father, she decided to "see the slums" and stopped at 
the (College Settlement. That "tour of the slums" took 
five years. She emerged as a radical, an organizer, and a 
champion for the working woman. In New "Vbrk she 
became a waitress and concluded that waitresses must 
be organized, unionized, and protective legislation for 
them must be passed. 

In San Francisco, in 1908, she pioneered a wait- 
resses union, became president of the 
local, and served for three terms as 
delegate to the Central Trades and 
Labor Council. She advocated the 
amendment for the eight-hour work- 
day for women. The amendment 
along with women's right to vote, 
passed on October 10, 1911. Having 
won suffrage in California, she joined 
the national campaign for the 
Nineteenth Amendment in 

Washington, D.C. 

Although she was a petite woman, 
she possessed an impressive oratory. 
She gave the kcvTiotc speech to the 
founding of Alice Paul's National 
Woman's Party, and the memorial 
oration for Inez Milhoulland 
Boissevan's funeral in Washington, 
D.C. She became the spokesperson 
for the National Woman's Party, and 
toured .;\merica declaring the man- 
date of the Party. In step with Alice 
Paul's confrontational style, Maud 
\bunger organized demonstrations, 
public meetings and pressured politi- 
cians b>' directing constituents to 
demand the Nineteenth Amendment 
from ('ongrcssmcn. A powerful voice 
and a spirited leader. mu 

aft<fr their oitm inten-'t* 

:'■ ' - '^'age rooveTT- * • 
<-l».T.ratc ir. t 
I' tht homf 


wovin, vi .in<-* rriT^ 

wcrt m.iilf I !.■ rv i\ori> 

Met With the ouisictf wv 

to the men, and ni<*n i;i;i'lr 

Women had nonr Tlicy wc' 

had belonged to their;- 

born child. But when th»- mtrodui. lani k>i 

the factories, wonun were forced to u>llo\ 

home the thin«r< tl.rv lu-r.lo,! ihcv lire! r<> 

earn the mon. 

entirely chanK 

The form o, .. , . ►,■•->■ •"■■■ 
ditions. A chaiiLjc m in<hiHtn,i: 
Conditions undir which \\.>iu, 
and laws must bo cbanRtii t" 
contact with the world; tliey ■ 
responsibilities with intn. It ; 
upon them Thf proportion i ; - 1-1,11 

■ re 

i-ii, .-I . etc . etc.. 
'. not C'im<- in con- 
tie*. That was left 
it their own iiitorestt. 
.lyi-rt'. KveryihinR they 
; rM-n will away h\> tin- 
ihinery removed work to 
They no lonj^rr m.-ide at 
. oil' !'.'■> t!ir! ,,nil 

...rid an<l share its 
It has been forced 
umin i> rapidly in- 

Self-protection requires that they should vote. Progress d«- 

mands it. 

The grounds on which nun h;iv<» oht.imvd an exti-nsir.i 
fhisf are: 1 — Governnit nt nui>t rt>t on the consent of ■ 
2 — Taxation without represoiuation i*; tvranny. These ar^u . 
eqttaily to women. There can he no democracy a here halt thv 
tion is governed without its consent. 

It is said that all the women will ti • • ^^ "' ■•••'• 
men. But it would be uniiist to di^fnin ' 
of thi^m do not use thi ballot 

• d: 


evil surrouruliiiKs. A corrupt city taints every home in it W in w<>n)cn 
vote, the homo-lovinK women are .un-mK the -tronKi'.it adv... .itos of suf- 
frage. And this has not been foutvl !•. m.ike tli< in Uss won.niily. 

Women now vote in New Zealand, Australia, Tasmania, Norway, 

■ PInland and Isle of Man. They h.iM mrmcipal ^utTraac in England. Ice- 
land, Scotland. Wales, Canada, Sweden, Denmark and Nattl. In ' ' ' 
they vote for evcrylhins . \eept | In Kmlaiid inoi .- tl' ■ 
women arc mcml><T> oi parliamciii. In lisc of the L niti d St.ii. 

r have equal suflfraKO with men; in more than twenty others, partial 

'>. tragc. ^ , 

{ In difTerent parts of the 

Indians. Hindoos and othei 
protect than have the Xiiien 

In California every ailult ^ 
dians, idiots, insane, criminals 

The country is looking to tal'.rma 
ballot It is not a (|uestion of the indefinite luturc. I he 
nient Ii.ts pi-sed the- IcKislafire by a larne maioritv 
The «|Hestion is before the voters. 

•out • 


ote Iia!> been gi\ < 
'ave they great 
Arc thcv III' 




^ ^ ^ 



The (Sixth <SLar 71 

Votes for Mothers 

Politics governs 

even the purity off the 

milk supply. 

It Is not outside the home 





WTien the great intelleetual and feminist Charlotte Perkins Oilman (1860-1935) 
settled in the Bay Area in the late 1890s, her book, Woman and Economics (1898) 
was already on her mind. One might say her experiences in California furnished her 
with the inspiration to write this book, which redefined woman's role in the home and 
in society. In addition to organizing the Woman's Congresses, Mrs. Oilman also wrote 
flyers as well as poems for the 1896 and 1911 campaigns. This handout is an exam- 
ple of her work. 

T2 The SLxth Star 


IT6' ^N OPEt* OOBbTiOf^ WHETHER, IW^T TO Be A W^iTRa^rS TO A MAfs>, 

Phil Rader (San Francisco Bulletin, March 26, 1910) poked good naturedly at this 
burning, profound question: food or the vote? 


The Sixth Star 73 





KE\EN-nMX PAfH-H H.Ci KRANrlfax). HlMiAV M llfKT «. Wll I'AHKX -■■: TO i« 

PKKK Kn-R crvm 

Hereby The Call Pledges Its Aggressive Support to the 
Political Emancipation of California's Women 

John D. Sprcekcis, the eldest son of the famous su^ar millionaire Claus Spreckels, 
was the editor of The Call whieh not only advocated women's suffrage, hut pnnided 
a worthy historical trail of the activities of the women's suffrage campaign of 1911. 
The Call distinguished itself as distinctly separate from the liquor estahlishment in 
San Francisco when it declared its aggressive support for suffrage on the front page 
of the Sunday edition, August 6, 1911. 

74 The SbcLh Star 




BY 2.051 

The CaH's PrMHctioa Wedacs- 

day SiMwa Comet ky 
I latanioa Vale 

jtepoRTs AtE ucKma 


Aaabrab «f Hariy Fifiires It 

PrvrM ky Practical Com- 

pletioa of Came 

' Latot Rdums od 
I^Srffrafc Amendment 


•ito|««»r ••«». 

AT the hour of voinR lo prcw 
iht raffrarrr imcmlmcnl I«a4t 
Sv 2051 To««. with 244 pr*- 
cincK to b< r<-porlrd The 
Call tttll tiirlia lo iu cfiinuic of 4,0)0 
maioTiiy (or tkc •nicndmttil. 

All CalilornU dlKorered ud ad. 
niintd vestcrdajr fhii The Call wa> 
rifht when it announced in itf i»»ae 
ol Wednradar mortimg that the 
woman nllTacr amendment had hem 

Thu informntmn. wbirh »a< pab- 
H»hed in The Call 24 hoari earlier 
than in the other morninc paper* ol 
San Fraiwlaro. and 36 ht«ir. earlier 
lh«n the afternoon papers of San 
Franciaro. wa« b#irtl on a correct 
anilyii. r,| the early rrliini< ol Toe»- 
<liy niirhl 4« Ka» proved ye»terda)r. 
when the maiority ataintt the amend- 
ment waa wlpe4 otii ^, the roiinl «f ilM 
•*••• t*M ti W i BMra <-«inplau 

When The Call could have asked its 
coUeagues to "eat crow." 

After the October 10, 1911 election, when both 
leading San Francisco papers, the Examiner and 
Chronicle, declared suffrage dead again. The Call 
reminded everybody that all the votes were not yet 
counted. Actually, The Call predicted that suffrage 
would win by 4,000 \otes! The final margin was 
3,587. In this article, The Call pointed out how the 
rest of the San Francisco papers were wrong and only 
it was right. So it was. Good reporting. 

The (Sixth .Star 75 


r, WEDNBSDAY, OCT. 4, 1911. 


I >.:<• w- r'r.r most ill, 
IIiiriiiK siRht.s that It' 
'o: ..,.,'.: ' :i nii)i)n will 
r l)arade that will cover llie > 

1 Mighfares of the city FrI- { 

Iht '^<-wi.ig. Headed by a brass 
kand playing patriotic airs, 50 ma I 
d)ine«, gay \r1th ypllow !?tr<»amers. ! 
rellow bnin 
levic*- SI 

knd other c. , ,. ;:^_-. 

»UJ leave the Hotel dhattuck at 7 

S clock and wend its joyous way 
trough enthtisiastic crowds. The 

• •.■iKioii will halt at |ii i 

and addresses will 
: known speakers. A; 
bctjured to speak are Prot. K. O. 
James. Mrs. E. 8. Watson, president 
of the state league: Albert b^lliott. P. 
M. jsisher and Mrs. Blum The latter 
two were among the speakers In 
Sacramento during the ntate fair, 
and created a great deal of enthusi- 
asm. .Mr?. Katherine W'augh M' 
Cullock will also be among t); 

Among those who will occupy au- 
tomobiles In the pnrad» are Mrs. 
Harh • •• Wm. KeJ'" ■ F 
F. H -. Aaron .s .■. 

C. f riid Mrs 

laud iiiul '! and Mr<. (,". F. 

VVelland Dr. and Mrs. 

Chas. Ell I'll ojiren Cheney Co. 
automobllo with guestM. MUs Leola 
Hall snd RH'-sts. Mr. and Mrs. Claude 
Gegnoux and guests, Mr. and Miv 
Chaif. Camm and guests. Mrs. Rllz, 
beth Witter. Mr. and Mrs. L. i 
Bloohman and guests, Mr. and Mi 
John .NIrol and gueata. Miss Hn 
ward Mr. and Mrs. Fr«<I C ."^ 
of nichniond with several m i 
niled with guesU Mrs. Rlinoi 
Hale. Mr. and Mr* Mosher. .Mr. an. 
Mrs Samuel C. Hnlght. Dr. and Mi 
W. F. aouthard. Mr. nnd Mrs V " 
Prown. Mrs. Ella Moore. .M 
.Mrs. i?. J. Bens. Mrs. Iivln;- 
Jr.. Dr. and Mrs John Sno'ik, ,\lr 
and Mrs. Perry Thoninklns. Mr. and 
Mrs. H. H. Sherwood and Mrs. 
Hotmr>6. Th»re are msfv others 
lilnnning to enter the paro'le, no( 
only Berkeley folk l)'*t t'eo-ile from 
i»ll the hnv cft'co. .\nynnf> "-lahlnR 
(o 'oin fils "procession of i>rogre«s" 
or lend a m^ch^ne to the caus«, call 
upon Mrs. Harland. 

to where the avenue crosses Adeline, 
south on .Adeline to Alcatra/.. whtr^- 

It. eabiward on 
K. southward or 
iinmiuii, eastward ou i3«ii.i..i. lo 
Telegraph, where the last halt will 
be made. { 

At each of the >•! 
addresses will >' 

speaker following :;.. ,....;U...„ 

who will more on to the next point, 
in this wav evervhody will have fli»*l 

(if iollowiug the Iouk lino of march. 
It will also prevent congeation of 



d t>ein/ii; au eloquent speaker, lie is 

great demand not only around th<- 

'"' Los Angeles has telegraphed 

ily for him to talk there. The 

):atlon was to address an au- 

of 3,000 next Monday night. 

Uous engagement to talk hern 

n, ,..f.,«^ Tt.i- »ni be on 

I d^y at 


and Mill Ite 
I he final rally. 

;.■«.■ ur >> Mf'M •'mos last 

evtnlns; In A of San 

Franclfco. i' i com one 

lifiint to nil .1 uutoniohile. 

und several people heard 

his eloquent ;... .:i 


Mre. Hester Harland. with Rev. 
Florence Buck of Alameda and Mr.' 
nol»ert .A Dean of Sflti Frnn<'1^<o 

•- on SUailtick to Center, *\ > 
es will be made, then dov> 

^stlr work*i'.-< 

•n (lie HuifruK>' 

The open roadster became the stellar mascot of the 1911 campaign. The College 
Equal Suffrage League had a special car, a blue one, which members named the Blue 
Liner. It became their signature, their pet, their main way to tour California and 
spread the suffrage word. The use of the car, a new, tlashy device on the California 
scene, w^as a brilliant public relations touch. Not only did it serve as "wheels," but 
also it was a place from which to speak, and it was especially appealing to men — the 
people who would vote for the suffrage amendment. Trimmed like a pet horse, the car 
sported yellow streamers, and proudly carried the suffragists throughout California. 

76 The Stxlh Star 

Ode to the Farmers who Voted a Majority for Us 

Out of the dust of the street 
Came the demise; 
Out of the fumes of the clubs, 
Scom of our trial. 

But from the strength of the hills 
Men's voices hailed us; 
God bless our farmer-folk, 
Scarce a man failed us! 

This is how the College Equal Suffrage League explained the vietory for suffrage. 

The (Sixth Star 77 

March 28, 1912, heralded an historic first action for the women of Cahfornia: This 
was the first time in their hves they could \ote! Left to ri^ht: Elizabeth Gerberding, 
Mary Sperry and Nellie Eyster pose for the camera. S.F. \bter Re;[^istrar Zemansky 
appointed women to fill one half the number of precinct positions. May 14 was the 
first presidential primary in the state and the first opportunity for women to partici- 
pate in national polities. 

78 The Sixth Star 

The Qoad to Washington 


The Sixth Slar 79 




^tjiirie S»in FUrtlnx Wftli Uie Sasnn K. AnOiony and the Shmfroth nmendmtDU. .He rflly prefera tile gtanplA bmI^, wmS iUiiikA Vi^ 1 
Nlsii Stutfroth, for all lier eirpefwlve riifnes. ■ • "'-•.. - j- * '■ .1.-' ■' ' • yi -■■^- 

In 1914, Senator John F. Shatroth (Colorado), proposed a suffrage amendment 
(S-3507) that would give women the right to vote only for a member of the House of 
Representatives or the Senate. At the Panama-Pacific Exposition (1915), women at 
the Suffrage Union proceedings debated the merits of the Shafroth and Susan B. 
Anthony amendments. Words were hot, arguments were heated, but in the end the 
women of the Suffrage Union pledged to support Susan B. Anthony. This cartoon 
depicts the final decision of the radical woman as partner to Uncle Sam. Imagine 
Susan B. Anthony dancing with Uncle Sam! 

80 The Sixth Star 




The Sixth 6lar 81 


Mlu nath lAbllr, Oa«.or <he if^mj Smttrmml»>» Sclllac <ka BdmsBt 
^ UdltloB of Tb« Ballr«la TiHlllr 





(Sriclki Dlifp.tch III The PuIleUn.) 
.SKW YOIIK. ««rt- It-itl* Kmpire 

6rul« Surfr«i;o Cjunpatini {Commltu*. 

Mrs. Currie Cfiapnibn CtllJ rhalrman. 

today exKnied cretdilKs to Uia »o- 

nitp Totcra of tha Wtat, fapraaanlad 

br (uffrMflata vtio today |e4l(e<l tba 

Ban Kranclico Bnllailn. 

•Tke ca«il»llt»« nrlcv^ara »»»ry 
clfon aark aa thr vroafa are aiak. 
lac fn itmm FrAorUco tatfar.** aaH 
Mra. Call, "ana rilrgda crrrtlaaa 
la the enfraaclllMvd ««uin*a of Ike 
rartrir Coaaf. II kopr* Ikal Ikr 
wamra «< tfrw York nlll be la- 
Fluded aaioav fbe cafraorburd 
afirr TVoveaibrr 3. aad l||iBlfl tkat 
fh« wuaiam t-atcra of Ike jWeat will 
aat fanK«1 tba atravslr tka 
la tba Caal.'; 

(Sperlal DIajiatch to 

1X>S .VNOELy:S. Sepl. ll.+Great In- 

hrf nulletin.) 

tcreat waa dlaplayed toda^ by Mra. 
Eitelle I^wton LIndacy, ally Coun- 
clIwftiriAn anrt foraier netl|iir Mayor. 

(fltMl by 
1 a atair 

b'han abe l^arnad (L 
cliico Bulletin wan belnic 
lira. O. H. P. Bolmonl « 
ot <Aim«D. Mra. Lindner >aM: 

**ic I were la Mra^ nelmc^i'a j^al- 
tlaai today and able fa dietala tba 
pnll^r of a «icfra»«IUaa vubllea. 

This Edition 

TfxUy'a laaue nt ^ha Bullelln la d«- 
voird to the laaui of nallon-wlda 
v),(ea lt,r wnnlen. It Ih edlleJ by klra. 
O ir. >•. Ilelmont] aaalaled by 8ara 
luV.l KlrM of I'oVll'nd. Ore., man. 
aclne edlt'.r: All^e Paul of W«;.)n. 
IV C. ncwa editor! Doria Htcvcna of 
.V-w York, rlty edllor: Mra. William 
KrnI, vrlfc of Coii|;r«timan Krn( of 

I,. •»l.rrnnli edllor and Vrn 




tCiader in * 
Caus2 to 


for Day 

llbourllr af Mr.. Heluioal. Made by Uratrli ilker. 
aaaa la fke l-alare of food Prodarla at Ika b'alr. 

I) II 1- n»i- 

l>eai known of 



fnr eqtik 
»M,-ril:e. will r.lll 
Tla lliilk'lln neil 
nuiiiKlMr. I'or ana 
da- -li^ will he In 
rniiii I :•> rliarca nf 
Ihr |> >.l<'y i.r the pa- 
per ■ •.il ■iin wilto 
an. rlnl wliat aha 

l'i> .'illl..rlu| aurt 
fitr I 1- irreat laa*iia 
«ll< I i' liiile many nf 
tho ^rllllunl women 
lioiif li>re allendlnc 
ll>« V.Miirn Vni-ra- 
Conv nlli.n. a Killli- 
•tint u( hialorlr Im- 
porli ii.f whlrh haa 
aa .!> "to--' I Iha fur- 
Ihrrai ra <>r the ram- 
lialfi for llio 
II. AMiinny am. nd- 
nie-.l It. I he reilrral 

Cm a lliitlon. 

Mrr llalmonf la - 
Ih- inllunal chalr- 
ina 1 1' Ihn Cnncrea- 
alri a II n I o n for 
W •• 'n n n Hufrrain 
aa la a lower of 
alirnnh |i> the rauaa 
for which aim la hal- 
lllnir. Her rnniniiu- 
llnni anil aupervl- 
al" 1. Willi arllilea 
by other ramoiia 


won en. will 
Ihia apeclal editio 
a nemoraMe iium 
her rf The llulletin 

82 The (Sixth Star 

\9 Vw*.^ 


' ' AttitudiiofWopianj^ 
oil Town 


'' '• ' , BAUJCD iOW k STjilTEAGETtE - ','-■ 

Th«ire'^ a lady »iid wepgreei her, who ts paid to 
i ' i: -'cjome-.ftocb iBoigtoa ! :! J 

To . tfeaeb the | Calif olfnla guffrtgette i 
How !t^ letm tb b« a( Udy; that the land pays 

• '< ^11 the. tjixea,;' |. ^ .; ^ |-- 

And that caan'a the jgreatest moral fiactor yet. 

We- bare j many pointu In common wtth thia la- 
.■ I < temtin« :abti<^n ■' -' ■ ■' 

We Acknowfedee th^t we rather like the men; 
We beileTe In J wine jfor dinner and 1 wo often 
B^rrt a cocktiUlLj { 

And we think the ntfedle Qii^htler th«n the pen. 

' : '■'-'■ •J'Jl ■ i ' ■ . ^ i 

Bnt the quite old I ftisbloqed antl thinks that 
*Tcry man is , piifrfeet;; 
That a voter Is i JjrilUatat, Waging: star- 
While ^ the atffrarett* l8 inodem; abe depl^-ea 

their pe^adilldi, j 
^ Bat -abe ll^ei thai l)|rutal I tyranta . a» they are I 

Qh, yon anaint and, ilieeplnis: antla heading deeds 
' to lota and bofikea r 

And bellerlng 'thiniBfa ar^ ercr as they seem, 
-Get awake, It la Octeft^r, and the bills are at the 
: ■' Icoiurtbotuie;! j • i j .. • 

For !the land. thai baya the taxes li a dream! 

Ton go hom«J tp co^jjold itoeton where the east 
wind <^nfg, th«.]heaxt»trinirs. ; 

!>«▼€ as ! where ! Jthe ciilla bloaaonas on the 
" ground,; ^ ■ |-f i- | ^ ■■ . 
We can rear <mv home* and children,! cheer our 

I men and cleiiii JAor Htlea, 
, And; we need noi i learn from Boaton to be 
^ sound. ' : ^ i 

Thbre'a a gjiLpderi itype ^ women jthan Now 

, i England eter nqrbared, i . 

. Thongb Ictfty- ty^ yohr early years could' 
. { . boatt;|, i: , ;T ^ ^ I , ., 

Tbcre^a a rp^eter; laak for ladles than to be 
.' : .arIato<tratlc, | - 

L And- thene'si *pmbtmng on the free Pacific 

%■ .\i -' .coast:! r !■ ; m- . [ ; ' i ■ , 

':^'i )•.!;. -■ r-^i '! U r 4 ■ - ■! • • 
*TUmt wall 'm«ike th* whole world better : whe'n 
, ;[! ! 'the fair- ahallT^all It hither, .^ 
^^A«^ the I eastern atateie ahoil tr^Tel home 

-^/ lagaln.5 ii"-: . '^ . r ' \, ; .. 
With the lesaoni of dnr p^-ogreai, theexample of 
• -••»-;' -I our" w'omen.-! • ', ] ". .:| 

-'■^ABd ithe ita,teitHiit| called them' eqttal with lU 

The Sixth Star 83 


Tt*8 womui 
Income Twr 

thia, and woman that, and woman go away. Bat "It's pleaa« deUver, madam.** when Uieve'* 


84 The Sixth Star 



Congressional Union for Woman Sufirage 

Tune — "Marseillaise" Words by — Sara Bard Field 

Rrst Chorus. 

Hark! what hosts, white-robed, advancing 
Through Night's dari< portal to the Dawn? 
What might purpose in the glancing? 
What vision look they far upon? 
What vision look they far upon? 

Second Chorus. 

We are women clad in new power. 

We see the weak. We hear their plea. 

We march to set our sisters free. 

Lo! has rung the chime from Freedom's tower. 


We come. We come at last. 

Night's portal we have past. 

We come. We come. Trust thou our might. 

Thou, too, shall walk in Light. 

Rrst Chorus. 

On they come nor know retreating; 
Eastward from the West they move. 
Souls upon the Morning beating. 
Womanhood made one in love. 
Womanhood made one in love. 

Second Chorus. 

No more we bend the knee imploring. 
No longer urge our cause with tears. 
We have rent asunder binding fears. 
We are women strong for women warring. 


We come. We come at last. 

Nights' portal we have passed. 

We come. We come. Trust thou our might. 

Thou, too, shall walk in Light. 

Words written for the Woman Voters' Demonstration given in the Court of 
Abundance, Panama-Pacific International Exposition. September 16, 1915. 

^-^I&#.«^^?*jfe The Aixth Star 85 


CCotuirrBSinnai Union for Voman ^nfTraar 

Ewnrtlwr ti—mw 

H*^ Ki«fe H*n iMM 

EiE^"»; r;„v„'rv\" to the woman voters of America 

The Cnn);rtssiaaal I'nion for Woman Suffra|f* is calling n 
convention til its membrrs and friends from the SiiffraRT States to 
meet at San Francisco Scptembrr 14th, LSth. aiid I6tb. The pur- 
pose of this coavendon ia to tnatnre plans for definite political 
action on the part ol iFOBan «-aters in support vt the nilional 
^ saSraj^ ameiidineDt. 

There are aow approsimatelv foar million »-oman vuierv 
One-fourth of the natieaal Senate, one-sixth uf the House of Repre- 
Sto mZ bJn^ul ' lentatiTes, and aae.lifth of the electoral v'ute comes from suffra)^ 

■!»■ PI i j . i i «jiw» s ^ 

States. With this lererafrt >» Conjn^ss. the national saffraf^ 
ajnendnient eoaU apcedily be paaaed if the woman toilers would 
unite in its support. This oonrentioa i* an attempt to de\-ise plans 
for united and elTecti^-e nction. It is tbe 6rst political convention 
of woman voters that has ever been called, and Is an cvrnl of 
historical si|n>ificaiKV' 

We hope Ter>- much that yon »HI1 be able lt> .ittend the con- 
vention. For further details pWase write to oar orKaniier. 
Miss Doris Stevens, Coofrressional I'nion Buolh. Palace at 
Edacation. Panama-Pacific Exposition, San Francisco, California. 

Mn mtmtlmml 

urns WIIXIAV ICKST ti.l«.-»,. 

MUS K ■ U VCM .M. tl..f.i..n. 

im l-OHA SMITH KlXIi lhM.«l .H 

MRS I.KIHII-.I- HIUI.K* l'.4ar.l.. 

NI!«» 11IA»U>TTK »NIT* »MITNK\ v .1.1. 

Ma> PKK*Tl>N hAITKKWIim N., \..>4 

MRS M H 'W ViM Vi; (.'.•■•Inriiv. 

Ml>.s M\K<..«KKT IliiHKaTS. I<bli>. 

MR.S. KKMOKRICk •■ SANRoRN I.*)!!.'.... 

MR!> I.rclVK M CI'THRfRT. i.f<k»..U. 

MRS rllllMRl! A IIKARST Ollkani. 



California and Washington, D.C. had a special relationship sinee the early days 
when Senator Aaron Sargent and Ellen (]lark Sargent be^an their suffrage work rep- 
resenting California while living in Washington. After California women won their 
vote in 1911, some of their leaders continued the national suffrage campaign by mo\- 
ing to Washington. Alice Parks. Maud Younger and Anita Wliitncy joined Mrs. Kent in 
the nation's capital working for the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. 

The successful 1911 suffrage campaign in the state gave four million California 
women the right to vote. Four million new \oters raised the specter of considerable 
political clout in the eyes of politicians in Washington. One example of this political 
power was the proceedings of the Woman \bters (]on\cntion (September 14,15 and 
16) of the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, 
which, in San Francisco in 1915, was the first convention of women Notcrs in the his- 
tory of the United States. National activists like .Mice Paul saw the potential of a pub- 

86 The SLxth Star ^-"tM^^ 

Is Ourt. n Government by Party? 

Mrs. Ipa Fimnkv MACKRrLi.E, raiifuraitt 

Svc iiriiiK Saff rHge Planks in National Party PUtform*. 
Mrs. Dora Publps BusLt, Colorado 

The 64tb Congress, 

Uva Alicb Pacl. Washington, I). C. 

Snfirage Tactics, Mb» Gail L.a(k;hun, California 

El««ti«« flf Envoys to Cmrtf Raiohitlwn froas 
CoavantaoB to CoBgrcss 

Fareweli t0 Envoys trwm CoBTeatiMi t« WaayagtMi, D. C, 

CMrt af AbnduMt, P. P. L L 8:30 P. N. 

Souk of Free W( 

Chaitman: - MI»» CHARl 

Presentation ot i jn()iif , 

kiception of Plaque, 


1 ari*V|Kll of rrONSTlt- 

)ar( well of WoniJin 


>i.n 1 i< 1 i ! ' 

Ml.vs Uaii. 

ki*[>l\'-ol Envoy*. 

The iNiarcti of Women, H,\tnii of Fart-well, 

I . Woman s Chorus 

i'reseSEi' f Resolutions to CougnfS 

paaro <>y v.tiii\ cmidti, •n<l Fnrcwell by Women 
oi All Katiutis. 
* Marc.ahkt Amuun 

Sonyf of Farewell, 

WOMKN OK Ai.i. Nations 

Frocfsision ol Escort ol Bovoys from Court to iixpo- 
sttion Gate 

lie relations event promotinj:^ the national suffrage amendment still unresohed. 
\Miile under the skies of San Franeiseo, the \bters Convention eonneeted (California 
to Washington, !).('. Representati\es and the Governors of suffrage states attended 
and spoke. Women from (China, Italy and Persia attended and spoke. National suffrage 
politieians from all over the United States attended and spoke. They joined the loeal 
and state political women in this historic event marking the ad\anee of the women's 
vote in America. The ^rand finale, on Friday e\enin^ of September 16, 1915, sent a 
motor ear with four women and a petition to (Congress and the President on the road 
to Washin/i^ton, D.(]. 


The 6ixth Star 87 

Alice Paul (1885-1977) 

Alice Paul, a Quaker social worker from New Jersey, became the brave and bril- 
liant head of the Woman's Political Party. She was responsible for the cunning politi- 
cal tactic of using the potential power of California women voters by holding both 
political parties responsible for passing the Nineteenth Amendment. If congression- 
al representatives did not press the Nineteenth Amendment forward, she would warn 
those politicians that they could be voted out of office. At a signal from her, California 
women voters would press their local politicians with phone calls and office visits. 
Men understood that power tactic and conceded. 

At the Court of Abundance of the Panama-Pacific Exposition (1915) in San 
Francisco, she spoke at the closing ceremony of the first convention of American 
women voters, September 14, 15 and 16. TXpical of her talent to make a point dra- 
matically. Miss Paul conceived the event that proceeded from the Court of 
Abundance, out the gates of the Exposition and across the country to Washington, 
D.C. It was farewell to the envoys, Sara Bard Field and Frances Jolliffe, in a roadster 
loaned and driven by two Swedish women, Misses Kindstedt and Kindberg. They car- 
ried a petition pressing for the Nineteenth Amendment to President Woodrow Wilson. 

88 The Sixth Star 




Advantages — For Your Wife 

uperTtcial exAjnination it often 
many convenience!, after it 

Many k car tKat loolct go<M) from a 
foun<] to be very incomplete and lacking ii 
has been purchased. 

Nowadaya all cart run but aome run with conaiderably leaa bather 
than other*. | 

In ihit reipect the Overland haa many deairable advanlafea — 
advantage! that will appeal particularly to your wife. 

All electric conlroU are located on the aleering column — within 
natural reach. Nothing could be limpler or- more convenient. 

The clutch and brake pedaU are adjuitable to any angle. Aaother 

Alao, they "give" with practically no effort. One doea not have to 
•train in order to apply the brake or diaengaga the clutch. 

The iteering wheel i» large and turn* very eaaily. Strength ia not 
a bit neceaaary. A young girl can handle it. 

The ahifling lever it handy and thifit readily. It ia placed ao that 
it in no way intcrferea with either tha driver or other occupant of the front 

An tlorm curtalna can be put on in a few minutaa, without gcllbtg 
out of the car. They are arranged ao that they almoat fall in place. 

Theae few ihinga are incBealiva o^ Orcrland conforta and eon- 
vaniehcaa. Your wife will appradaU tSam. 

Conipared with other po(iuUr.pricad cart, tka Overland haa many 
decided advantafea. 

Our daalv will ba glad to go bits detail. 

Modal SI RoMltti 
klodelM SUCytladE 

lar— III45 

.-Fsj; J. W. LEAVITT & CO^ Dutiibuter. ~V'„ 

The Willys-Overland Company, Toledo,' Ohio 

M,, mmlKUtn ./ WiBtt^tjitfil AiOtmAlL. , "Va* mU.S. A.' 

Just as women caught on to the bicycle in the last years of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, women took to the automobile in the twentieth. Not only driving, women also 
learned the basic mechanics of successful car-keeping such as changing oil. The 
Willys-Overland had a good reputation, and its originating company eventually pro- 
duced Jeeps in the later part of the twentieth century. Any journey by car, even todcay, 
takes a certain spirited attitude to make it happen. Needless to say, four women tra- 
versing roads hardly there, always seeking gas not easily found, accomplished a task 
worthy of the triumphant parade they received down Pennsylvania Avenue on the road 
to the White House in 1915! 



The Sixth Star 89 

Congressional Union for Woman 6ufirage 

According to the San Francisco Biillctiu. on a Thursday niji^ht, September 16, 
1915, at the Court of Abundance in the Panama l\'ieifie Exposition, so ended "...the 
most dramatic and significant suffrage convention tliat has probably e\er liccn held 
in the history of the world." Picture a crowd of 1 (),()()() attending these closing cere- 
monies filled with symbols of suffrage and feminism. In the large arch framing the 
base of the court tower hung a banner reading, "We demand an amendment to the 
(Constitution of the United States enfranchising women." Choruses sang "The March 
of the Women," and "Song of Free Women," words composed iiy Sara Bard Field, to 
the music of "The Marsellaisc." Energy heightened as the crowd joined in singing. 
This final action of the (Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage sent two elected del- 
egates, Frances Jolliffe .and Sara Bard Field, to Washington. Sara Bard Field held the 
petition signed by Exposition visitors, it contained 000, ()()() names and would be cir- 
culated for more names among the cities along the road to Washington, !).(]. As the 
Bulletin related: 

"Then all at once the great brightly-colored picture and its dark back- 
ground began to disintegrate and fade. The court darkened, but colorful 
masses of women were forming in procession to escort the envoys to the gates 
of the Exposition. Orange lanterns swayed in the breeze, purple, white and 
gold draperies fluttered, the blare of the band burst forth, and the great surg- 
ing crowd followed to the gates. 

There Miss Ingebore Kindstcdt and Miss A. M. Kindberg of Providence, 
Rhode Island, \vho have purchased the car that is to take the crusaders on 
their long journey, met the solemn procession. The Overland ear was etnered 
with suffrage streamers. Miss Kindberg was at the wheel. To the wild cheering 
of the crowd Miss Jolliffe and Mrs. Field, the two emoys for Washington, were 
seated. The crowd surged close with final messages. Cheers burst forth as the 
gates opened and the big car swung through, ending the most dramatic and 
significant suffrage comention that has probably e\er been held in the histo- 
rv of the world." 

90 The Sixth Star 

The Court of Abundance (at night), Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 1915 


The &i\lh Slar 91 









X 'i r 

: 5 ? 1 f I 

K 5 »5 * •_ 

=r t " "» o 

* 1 S ~ '^ 

c s i 5 I 

• s i 3 _ 

- * « 3 i 

r I 

' T s ;«';■< 3" 
B s • =■ ^ i" * 2 
r° sl 2.:; = I 

P ,- £ 

- 2 ■" 

" S -c 

2 • 5 

IT * 

:? jf c- 

« C 3 5 1 

« 5 I * 

n S n 

^2 S 

92 The Sixth Star 


Trail of Light (timeline) 

Sarah M. Pellet, M.D. mounted the leetern and spoke about equality of women, San 

A new women's literary magazine, The Hespenan, launched by editor Mrs. A. M. 
Schulz, eventually replaced in 1863 by Elizabeth Schcnck. 
Lisle Lester promoted women's rights as editor of the Pacific Monthly. 
Banner of Progress, a weekly Spiritualist newspaper, published news about the 
women's movement. 

Women's Cooperative Printing Union organized by Agnes Peterson. 
February 18, Laura deForce Gordon gave a speech, that launched the suffrage move- 
ment in San Francisco. 

Testing the validity of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Constitutional amendments 
including women's franchise, a statewide petition was presented to the state legisla- 
ture to secure the vote for California women. 

July patriots formed the nucleus group from which the state suffrage association 

The founding of the California Woman Suffrage Association. Sarah Wallis, first presi- 

Emily Pitts Stc\'cns bought the Siifukiy Mercury, changed the name to Saturday 
Evening Mercntry, the first women's suffrage publication in the West. Name changed 
to the Pioneer, with the same pro-suffrage stance. 

Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth C. Stanton visited San Francisco and the Bay Area. 
Susan B. Anthony toured the West Coast and returned to San Francisco (August- 

The trial: Mrs. Van Valkcnburg sued the Santa (]ruz registrar of \'oters, Mr. Brown, for 
refusing her request to register to vote. Her case defeated. Appeal lost. 
Laura dcForce Cordon, as a member of the Independent Party, San Joaquin County, 
ran for the state senate. 


The *ixth Star 93 

1872 Emily Pitts Stexens founded the Woman's Publishing Co. promoting women's work as 

1872 Nellie C. Tator applied to Santa Cruz Court tor admission to the bar. Denied. 

1874 Pro-suft'rage weekly Spiritualist journal Coiiunon Sense, edited by Amanda and 
William Sloeum, ran tor one year. 

1876 Marietta Beers-Stow published Probate Confiscation, a seathing aeeount of the hor- 
rors for widows and ehildren in the Probate Court. 

1878 Through efforts of Clara S. Foltz, the Woman Lawyers' Hill signed into law. gixing 
women the right to praetiee law in (California. 

1878 First words about suffrage uttered in Congress by the Senator from ("alifornia. Aaron 
A. Sargent (Xe\ada (Mty). Amendment proposed. 

1879 CClara Shortridge Foltz and Laura deForee Cordon argued in the Fourth Distriet C]ourt 
on behalf of Foltz's suit against Hastings Sehool of the Law for deming women admis- 
sion to Hastings. Case won. 

1880 In running for the San P'raneiseo Board of Edueation, Marietta Beers-Stow organized 
a politieal rally at her home, reportedly the first rally of this kind. 

1881 The Woman's Herald of Industry and Social Science (looperator founder Marietta 
Beers-Stow ehampioned ehildren's and women's rights. She proelaimed her paper as 
the only one in Ameriea entirely edited by women, w ho did all meehanieal work exeept 
the press. 

1881 Mary Mellenry Keith was the first woman graduate of Hastings Sehool of the Law. 

1882 As an independent. Marietta Beers-Stow was the first woman to run for goxernor of 
the state. 

1884 Beha Loekwood (attorney from Washington, D.C.) ran for i'resident of tlie I'nited 
States with Marietta Beers-Stow as her running-mate. They were nominated by a eon- 
\ention held in San Franeiseo and led in' Clara Foltz, .Marietta Beers-Stow and Drs. 
Hall and Corbett. 

1887 The Sketeh (]lub, the first women's artists elub in (laiifornia, founded in San 
Franeiseo. Still funetioning as the San Franei.seo Woman Artists Assoeiation, .'^70 
Hayes Street. 

1888 The (lentury Club, San Franeiseo's first women's elub, foimded. Still flourishing at 
1355 Franklin Street. 

1893 At the Chieago Columbian Fair, the remarkable Woman's (]()ngress attraeted huge 
audienees, second only in popular attendance to the World's Parliament of Religions. 

1894 The Paeifie (Coast Woman's (]ongress Assoeiation held its first of four \ears of con- 
gresses in San Franeiseo. 

1895 Susan B. Anthony came to San Franeiseo to prepare for the 1896 campaign to amend 
the state constitution to gi\c women the right to \()te. 

1896 The arri\al of the national team from Washington, l).(C. to join with the locals to run 
the suffrage campaign of 1896. 

1896 The amendment to gi\c (California women the right to \ote was defeated, Xcnember 

1897 The (California (Club, a women's civic organization, founded in San Franeiseo. Still 
exists on (Clay Street. 

1906 From the Presidio in San Francisco, at her own expense, (Catharine Reed Balentine 
published The Yellow Ribbon, the official paper of the West Coast suffrage societies. 

1906 A \ery successful suffrage con\cntion was held in San Francisco amidst the ashes and 
rubble of the fire and earthquake. 

1908 In Oakland, California, Lillian Harris Coffin organized and led a march of 300 suffra- 
gists to the Republican state convention. 

94 The Sixth Star 

Sclina Solomons founded the Votes-for-Womcn (Hub in downtown San Francisco. 
Led by Selina Solomons, \btes-for-\\bmen members confronted the San Francisco reg- 
istrar of \oters with their request to register to \ote. Denied. 

The California women's campaign to go for the vote began six months before the Oct. 
10 election. 

By a slim margin of 3,587 \-otes, California women won their right to \ote with the 
passage of an amendment to the state constitution. The Sixth Star was won. 
Selina Solomons' book, IIoiv We Won the \hte in 797 7, published in San Francisco. 
(]on\cned at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, the first meeting of 
American women xotcrs. A massive petition pressing the Nineteenth Constitutional 
Amendment was dispatched by car to the nation's capital. 

California (ioxcrnor Stephens comened a special session of the legislature to ratify 
the Nineteenth Amendment. 
August 26 was the final adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment. 





The 6ixlh Star 95 

Writing Notes 

I am as expansive as I am opinionated here in documenting sources about the California 
suffrage campaigns. Since so httle has been pubhshed about these elections, I feel responsi- 
ble to reveal my paths of search to lessen the work of subsequent researchers, hopefully to 
show how accessible the material is, and to share my enthusiasm of the discovery. 

Because the stars of the National Woman Suffrage Association came to California to help 
in both campaigns, their stories become part of California's story. Also the reverse of that 
became true. Namely, once Western women won the right to vote, these National stars, such 
as Alice Paul and Carrie Chapman Catt, used the power of that Western vote — particularly 
that of populous California — to influence the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. I began 
my research by reading these sources for their background information, as well as an intro- 
duction to the national suffrage stars and their response to the Western women's vote when 
it was won. 

Adams, Mildred. The Ri^ht to he People. (N.Y., 1967) 

Banner, Lois W. Elis:.abetli Cady Stanton. (Mass., 1980) 

Catt, Carrie Chapman. Wonum Suffrii^e and Politics. (N.Y., 1923) 

Evans, Sara M. Bom for Liheity . (N.Y., 1989) 

Fowler, Robert Booth. CaiTie Catt. (Mass., 1986) 

Flexner, Eleanor. Century of Stni^le . (N.Y., 1972) 

Frost, Elizabeth and Cullen-Dupont, Kathr>n. Wonuin's Suffrage in America (N.Y., 1992) 

Griffith, Elizabeth. In Her Chen Rij^llt. (N.Y, 1984) 

Grimes, Alan P. The Pwitan Ethic and Woman Suffrage, (('onn., 1980) 

Harper, Ida Husted. The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony. (Indiana, 1908) 

Irwin, Inez Harper. The Story of the Woman's Paity. (N.Y, 1921) 

Notable American Women, 1607-1950. Vols. 1-3. Mass. 1971 

Scott, Andrew W. and Anne Firor. O/ie Half the People: The Fight for Woman Suffrage. {\\\., 

Sherr, L>Tin. Failure is Impossible. (N.Y, 1995) 
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady. Eighty Years and More Remeniscences. 1815-1897. (N.Y, 1992 

Stevens, Doris. Jailed For Freedom. (N.Y, 1920) 

For the California story these were indispensible: 

Beeton, Beverly. Woman Vote in the West: The Woman Suffrage Movement 1869-1896. (N.Y, 

Davis, Reda. California Women: A Guide to their Politics (1885-1911). (Gal., 1967) 
Solomons, Selina. How We Won the Vote in California. (Gal., 1912) 

Rodes, Donald Waller. "The California Woman Suffrage Campaign of 1911." Master's Thesis, 
(unpublished., 1974) 
The Bancroft Library in Berkeley has boxes of material on women's suffrage in California; 
about the College Equal Suffrage League; copies of Tlie Yello-w Ribbon and The Western 
Womaii; the Ponds/McHenry/Keith papers, rich and full of memorabilia, letters, notes, clip- 
pings and pictures. Selina Solomons' papers do not reveal as much about her as Shirley 
Sargent's Solomons of the Sierra (Fhing Spur Press, 1990) and Irena Narell's article "Jewish 
Women Pioneers in California History," NaAjnat Woman, May-June, 1987; as well as her Our 

96 The Sixth Star 

CUy (California, 1981) 

Newspaper aeeounts of suffraj^e aetixities and e\ents were as indispensible as they were 
re\ealin^ about the newspapers themselxes. Miehael deYounj^'s anti-an\thin^ new-woman bias 
soon beeame \ery elear. The Chronicle rarely covered a suffrage situation s>Tnpathetically, if 
at all. For evenhanded suffrage and new-woman stories, Hearst's Examiner and The Call, 
owned at one time by ('lara Shortridj^e Foltz's brother, Charles, proved valuable. For stories 
about each campaign, I read papers dated before, during and after the elections, political con- 
ventions, and any suffrage stars' events. 

The 1896 San Francisco voting records were destroyed by the 1906 fires. To locate court 
cases, 1 used the Law Library of City Hall and Hastings School of the Law, San Francisco. 
Background reading for the politics of San Francisco, the following were helpful: 

Bean, Walton. California. (N.Y., 1973) 

Caughey, John. California. (N.J., 1964) 

Cleland, Robert Glass. Wilderness to Empire. (N.Y., 1959) 

Issel, William and Cherny, Robert. San Francisco 1865-1932. (Cal., 1986) 

For the story of Senator Aaron Sargent and Ellen Clark Sargent, see Marion Tinglcy's "A 
Quest for Rights: Woman Suffragists", Sierra Heritage, January and February, 1992. 

\\ Oman's Congress material is part of the Ponds/McIIenry/Keith papers. Discussions 
about the Woman's Congress at the Chicago Columbian Fair, appear in Jeanne M. Weimann's 
The Fair Women (Chicago, 1981) 

G. Thomas Edwards' Sowiiyl Good Seeds (Oregon, 1990) followed Susan B. Anthony on her 
trip up the Pacific Coast to Washington and back in 1871. Ida Hustcd Harper's indisputable vol- 
umes. The Life ami Work of Susan D. Anthony, contain her trips to California including, 1895- 

Material on Santa Cruz's feminist, Georgiana Bruce Kirby can be found in Georgiana B. 
Kiiby: Feminist Reformer of the West, Santa Cruz Historical Society, 1987. 

Information about Laura dcForce Gordon can be found in the Notable American Women, 
\bl. 2 and Pen Portraits, R.R. Parkinson (S.F, 1878) 

See the Sarah B. Cooper story in Notable American Women. Vol. 1. and the San Firmcisco 
Chronicle, December 12, 1896. 

The Leila and Mary Curtis (Richardson) story is from the WTA Art Research, \bl. 5, under 
Mary Curtis Richardson; also David A. McGibney's 1987 Master's Thesis at Mills, "Mary Curtis 
Richardson: An American Woman Artist." 

Roger LcNcnson's W(nnen Printers in Northern California (Santa Barbara, 1994), shows 
the close relationship between printing, publishing, writing, Spiritualism, and suffrage in San 
Francisco. Lexenson's coxcragc of Emily Pitts Ste\cns' inxolvcmcnt in early suffrage in San 
Francisco is worthy, as well as Dr. Robert Chandler's article in California History, "In the \an: 
Spiritualists as Catalysts for the California Women's Suffrage Movement" (Fall, 1994) Asfrca, 
by Mrs. Thorndike, is in the San Francisco Main Library, si.xth floor. 

To read pages and pages about liquor establishments in San Francisco and other towns in 
California in the late 1890s, try the 1893 Gazeteer. Figures of the 1896 election were gleaned 
from newspapers, particularly the Exaynirier and The Call. 

For discussion about the advent and impact of the Lincoln-Roosevelt League in California, 
I suggest: J. (iregg LvTic, "The Lincoln-Rooscxclt League," Historical Society of Southern 
California Quarterly, XXV, Sept. 1943, and Bean, (]aughey, Isscl and Chcrncy and Cleland. 
College Equal Suffrage League material have their own bo.x at the Bancroft. Winning Equal 


The (Sixlh &[ar 97 

Suffrcige m California (1912) includes reports of the College Equal Suffrage League of 
Northern California, especially recounts of the famous Blue Liner campaij^n roadster. The 
Hester Harland papers about suffrage eo\er both 1896 and 1911 with newspaper clippings and 
other ephemera. In Hcnz' We Won the Vote in Califonmt, Selina Solomons documented the 
1911 campaign with an inimitable sa\'\y and sassiness that showed her feisty personality. 

Clara Shortrid^e Foltz's papers do not exist but she wrote her autobiography in her pub- 
lication. The Sew American Woman, dates April 1916 to June 1918. Useful information about 
her life is in Hastiiifls' Law JounuiL \bl. 27. November 1979, "Clara Shortrid/[^e Foltz: Pioneer 
in the Law," by Mortimer 1). Schwartz. Susan L. Brandt and Patience Milrod. Also Xotable 
American Women \bl L, and Hastings College of the Law by Thomas Cordon Barnes, (C^al., 

At the California Historical Society, Mm. Louise Aj^atha .loscphinc Bacon Sorbier's papers 
and scrapbooks are especially helpful about the Woman's ('on^rcsses in California. Mm. 
Sorbier was on the Board of Directors of the Woman's (^on^rcss. 

The rej^istrar of xotcrs records of the September, October and Noxember 191 1 elections 
in San Francisco coimty exist through the Koshland Ilistorx' Center. 6th floor of the San 
Francisco Main Library, (]i\ic Center. 

Regarding eoveraj^e of the Wa^e Earners League's inxohement in the 1911 campaign, see 
Sue Englandcr's unpublished paper, "Organizing for Woman Suffrage in Labor's (]ity: The 
Wage Earner's League's I'niquc Role in the 1911 (lampaign in San Francisco" (1986) at the 
Labor Archi\'es and Research (Center, 480 Winston Way, San Francisco. Also read Katharine 
Marino's article "Maud Younger and the San Francisco Wage Earner's Suffrage League: 
Standing Firmly for Working (^lass Women", (Ailifornia Historian. Fall, 1997. 

The Shafroth amendment citation is in the C<mgressi<jnal Record for the 6.1rd Congress, 
2nd Session, December 1, 1913, to October 24, 1914. For a detailed article about the 1915 
cross-country roadster trip, highlighting Sara Bard Field's participation, read Amelia Fry's 
"Along the Suffrage Trail," Americcm History, .January, 1969. Also check newspaper accounts 
of that eventful sendoff. September 16, 1913. 

All music sheets for "Bin- A l>room" and "March of the Women" are from the San 
Francisco Main Library; the music department. For "March of the Women" and Sara Bard 
Field's words to the "Marscllaisc," sec the suffrage file on the sixth floor. 

98 The Sixth Star ^^^•%^^^*m* 

Sources: lUustrations and Images 

All the archival art and images were photographed and resuscitated by Sue ('azaly. 
Co\er hiia^e: trom Ella Sterling (Cummins' Story of the Files, 1894, author's copy;. 
Pa^e 4: Dedication paj^e: from Selina Solomon's cover How We Won the Vote in California, San 

Francisco xMain Library, History (Center, 6th Floor. 
Pa^c 6: Acknowledgement pa^c: from Story of the Files. 
Page 7: "Women Vote" handout from suffrage files, San Francisco Main Library, History Center, 6th 

Page 13: "Inspiration of the Suffrage (]ause" image from San Francisco Call- Bulletin, Sept. 18, 

Page 14: Laura dc Force (iordon picture. Bank of Stockton archives. 
Page 15: Georgianna Bruce Kirby from Story of the Files. 

Page 16: "Champions of Woman Suffrage" San Francisco Chronicle, July 11, 1871. 
Page 17: "Shall Women Xbte?" San Francisco Chronicle editorial, July 11, 1871. 
Page 18: Woman Suffrage poem, San Francisco Chronicle, February 4, 1870. 
Page 20: Emily Pitts Ste\cns picture, the ("alifornia Historical Society, San Francisco, CA. 
Page 21: Masthead oi California Sunday Mercury, the Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California. 
Page 23: Carrier Dove cover, July 27, 1889, San Francisco Main Library, History Center, 6th Floor. 
Page 24: Title page of .A.sfrea, San Francisco Main Library, History Center, 6th Floor, two poems: 

"Ode" and "Labor is Worship." 
Page 27: Women's Cooperative Printing Union ad in West Coast Journal, May 18, 1870, the 

Bancroft Library, Berkeley, (California. 
Page 28: Marietta Beers-Stow portrait from her 1876 book, Probate Confiscation, the Bancroft 

Library, Berkeley, California. 
Page 29: Ellen Clark Sargent picture from Selina Solomons', How We Won the Vote in California, 

San Francisco Main Library, History Center, 6th Floor. 
Page 31: 1895 California Woman's (Congress Association Board and Staff picture, the (California 

Historical Society, San Francisco, Mm. Sorbier's papers. 
Page 32: "The Hand that Rocks the Cradle Rears the Patriot" newspaper image, the Bancroft 

Library, Berkeley, California, Ponds-McHenry-Keith papers. 
Page 33: Sarah B. Cooper picture, San Francisco Main Library, History Center, 6th Floor. 
Page 34: Fourth Star handout, the Bancroft Library, Berkeley, (California, Ponds-McHenry-Keith 

Page 35: Bifurcated skirt image from the San Francisco Call, May 1892. 
Page 36: Women's Place in the Home, San Francisco Call, September 18, 1915. 
Page 37: Stars of Liberty, iSV«j Francisco Examiner, June 17, 1896 

Page 38: "Will Leave Them No Chance to Pvscape," San Fiancisco Examiner, June 17, 1896. 
Page 39: 1896 (Campaign Team, the (California Historical Society, S.F., CA. 
Page 40: Mary McHenry Keith portrait, tlic Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California, Ponds-MeHenry- 

Kcith papers. 
Page 41: Young Mary McHcnry portrait, the Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California, Ponds-McHenry- 
Keith papers. 
Page 42: Reception invitation card, the Bancroft Library, Berkeley, (California, Hester Harland 

Page 43: Political FCquality handout. Bancroft Library, Berkeley, (California, Hester Harland papers. 
Pgac 44: (Clara Shortridge Foltz portrait, the Bancroft Library, Berkeley, (California.. 
Page 45: (Clara Shortridge Foltz portrait, the Bancroft Library, Berkeley, (California.. 
Pgac 46: Jimmy Swinnerton cartoons from the Sai\ Francisco Ex(miiner, No\ ember 4, 1896. 
Page 47: Delegate Ixidge to State Woman's Suffrage (Convention, the Bancroft Library, Berkeley, 



•§^♦1^ The Sixth &[ar 99 

Page 49: WesteTH Mbmen, Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California, Ponds-McHenry-Keith papers. 
Page 50-51: Program, October 24, 1902. Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California, Ponds-McHenry- 

Keith papers. 
Page 52: NAWSA badge, Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California, Ponds-McHenry-Keith papers. 
Page 53: Nellie Holbrook Blinn, Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California, suffrage files. 
Page 54: August 27, 1908, Oakland March, the California Historical Society, San Francisco. 
Page 55: Lillian Harris Coffin picture from Solomons', How We Won in the Vote in California, San 

Francisco Main Library, History Center, 6th Floor. 
Page 57: Cover oi Hcni^ We Won the Vote in California, San Francisco Main Library, History Center, 

6th Floor. 
Page 58: Selena Solomons' portrait in her book Hovi' We Won in the Vote in California, San 

Francisco Main Library, History (Center, 6th Floor. 
Page 59: "Justice to California Women " handout, San PVancisco Main Library, History Center, 6th 

Floor, suffrage files. 
Page 60: "California Women Have No Votes " handout, Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California, suf- 
frage files. 
Page 61: "Votes for Women" prize-winning poster, Bancroft Library, Berkeley, (lalifornia. Equal 

Suffrage League files. 
Page 62-63: "Buy a Broom" sheet music from 3rd tloor Main Library, San Franci.sco. 
Page 64: "Another Star " by permission from the Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California, suffrage 

Page 65: Elizabeth Lowe Watson picture in //o-cc- We Won in the Vote in California, San Francisco 

Main Library, History (Center, 6th Floor. 
Page 66: Berkeley Suffrage (Campaign Headquarters handout, the Bancroft Library, Berkeley, 

California, Hester Harland papers. 
Page 67: "Votes for Women" handout, San Francisco Main Library. History Center, 6th Floor. 
Page 68: "Women Should \bte" handout, the Bancroft Library, Berkeley California, suffrage file. 
Page 69: Minna O'Donnell picture from the San Francisco Call, August 19, 1911. 
Page 70-71: "Why Wage-Earning Women Should Note", San Francisco Main Library, History Center, 

6th Floor. 
Page 71: Maud Younger picture from the California State Library collection, Sacramento, 

Page 72: "Voters for Mothers" handout, the Bancroft Library. Berkeley. California, suffrage file. 
Page 73: "I Believe in the Food, if not the Note' by Phil Radcr in San Francisco Bulletin, March 26, 

Page 74: The San Franci,sco Call headline, August 6, 1911, the Bancroft Library, Berkeley, 

California, suffrage file. 
Page 75: "Women Lead in Ballot" article in The San Francisco Call, October 12, 1911, the 

Bancroft Library, Berkeley, (California, suffrage file. 
Page 76: "Suffrage Auto Parade" article, Berkeley Independent, October 4, 1911, the Bancroft 

Library, Berkeley, (California, suffrage file. 
Page 77: "Out of the Dust" poem from CCollegc Equal Suffrage League files in the Bancroft Library 

Berkeley, California. 
Page 78: "Women \bte in San Francisco in 1912", California State Library Collection, Sacramento, 

Page 79: "Wliat? Back Again So Soon?" cartoon from the San Francisco Call, September 18, 1915. 
Page 80: Shafroth Amendment (S 3507) in San Fraiwisco Call, September 18, 1915. 
Page 81: Full page cartoon, San Francisco Call, September 18, 1915. 
Page 82: "Paper paper!", San Francisco CaU, September 18, 1915. 
Page 83: "Ballad of Suffragette," San Francisco Call, September 18, 1915. 
Page 84: "And Without Representation," San Francisco Call, September 18, 1915. 
Page 85: "Song of Free Women,", San Francisco Main Library, History Center. 6th Floor. 

100 The Stxlh §Lar 

Page 86-87: Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage program (2 pages), San Francisco Main 

Library, History (Center, 6th Floor, PPIE file. 
Page 88: Alice Paul picture from Doris Stevens' Jailed for Freedom. 
Page 89: Willys ()\erland ad, Sail Fraywisco Call, September 18, 1915. 

Page 91: "C]ourt of Abundance,", San Francisco Main Library, History Center, 6th Floor, PPIE file. 
Page 92: "March of the Women", San Francisco Main Library, History Center, 6th Floor. 
Page 93: Bear image from Cummins' Story of the Files. 

Page 95: San Francisco Sunilay (kill, July 4, 1909, Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California, suffrage 



The SL\th Star 101 

Men come and men go, but a truth goes marching on. 

in a We are half ffce human 

true -ChoHone Pe.k.ns G," „ 


citizen «'-»",;»*« - *'• "' "•" 

cannot go fat ^°"S_gg,y^ ^, lachNOod 


Women's suffrage is not a struggle in which men are to be 
the losers and women the gainers. It is a struggle in which 
both are to gain and lose alike. — Emily Pitts-Stevens 

THE HAND Sl^ZT'"'' '^- t,.es ■ r 

THAT ROCKS malTli" ^"^« ^oXvT'' '""^^ 

THE CRADLE ''' ri^^'^^^e^Z't 


-Susan R ": '"°ney. 

Liberty is the fundamental 
desire of the human spirit. 

hilt" •'«« r& 

102 The .Sixth Star ^K^5 


Mae Kramer Silver 

Mae Kramer Siher came to San Francisco from New Jersey in 1960. She holds a 
B.S. triple major in Education, History and Enj^lish from Trenton State College 
(1955), and a M.S.W. from Rutgers University (1958). After a career as a Licensed 
Clinical Social Worker, Mae became a history writer and an independent scholar 
focusing on San Francisco neighborhood history. She particularly enjoys those stories 
no one else has written — such as The Sixth Star. In addition to writing history, Mae 
served as a founding director of the San Francisco Historical Society and as secretary, 
vice president and president of the San Francisco History Association. Currently she 
is a member of the Women's History committee of The Women's Building. 

Writing since 19(S4, Mac has published numerous articles in \\c\sfe?7i States 
Jewish Historical Joimud, Argomtut, Friends of the Library News, San Francnsco 
Officer's News, Hastings Community and Westerners Vignettes, as \\ell as local neigh- 
borhood papers. She won a history writing prize in the San Francisco County Fair in 


The 6ixlh Slar 103 

Abraham Lincoln said: Women Should Vote. What do you say? 

No taxation without representation. 
Democracy should begin at home. 
With Justice and Liberty for all. 

Forward out of Error, Forward into Light. 
Resistance to tyranny is obedience to God. 

Leave behind the night. 

Give your g^rl the same chance as your boy. 
Let women help. Two heads are better than one. 

Justice demands the vote. 

How long must women ivait for liberty? 
Women should be armed with the ballot. 

104 The Sixth SLar ^K^^^^^*^*4© 

Sue Cazaly 

A natix'c born Californian from Delano, Sue 
Cazaly reeehed her B.A. in Edueation and Art 
from San Jose State Unhersity (1955) and an 
M.A. in Art and photography from Ohio State 
University (1972). Her speeialized outdoors pho- 
tography has been published in Persiimnon Hill 
magazine, California Art Review, Grassland 
Review (Uni\ersity of North Texas), New Poetry 
Joiirtud, The Spiiit Tluit Moves Us Press, Poet's 
Market Book and Journal of the West. She has 
exhibited at the Bay Window Gallery, in 
Mendoeino; Mendocino Art (Center; PhoenLx Art 
Museum, in PhoenLx, Arizona; Gallery F22, in 
Santa Fe, New Mexieo; Morro Bay Natural History 
Museum, Juried Photo Salon, in Daly City, 
California; and the Shasta County Art Couneil, in 
Redding, California. Sue has ser\ed as chairper- 
son of the Display Committee of the historic San 
Francisco Women Artists Gallery since 1992. Slide Shows and Documentation: The 
Nature Conservancy — Carrizo Plain, Smithsonian — Carrizo Plain, University of 
California, Mono Lake, 19th Century San Francisco Women Artists with Mae Silver, The 
Sixth Star with Mac Siher. 



Chris Carlsson 

As the designer of The Sixth Star, Chris Carlsson com- 
bines fascination for forgotten history with his graphic art 
talents and political sensibilities. He is a prolific \\Titer 
and artist \\'ho has latch' produced the a\\ard-winning 
Sha))in^ San Francisco, which honors forgotten and neg- 
lected local history on computer kiosks installed in sev- 
eral public locations throughout the city. He also co-edit- 
ed Reclaiminf^ San Francisco: Ilistoiy, Politics, Culture 
((]ity Lights, 199(S). In July, 1999, the San Francisco Bay 
Ckatrdian named (]hris a "Local Hero" for his work about 
the city's forgotten histories. As co-owner of TXpesetting, 
Etc., (]hris provides a crucial link between creators and 
printers. He is the indispensable in-between spirit in The 
Sixth Star. 



The Sixth <Slar 105 

106 The <§.kth Star 



1868 7, 14, 95 

1884 Presidential election 30 

1896 election 15, 35, 40, 42, 46-47, 53, 94, 97 

1896 State Woman Suffrage Convention 47 

1896 suffrage amendment 7, 9, 35, 38, 47 

1896 suffrage campaign 1 1, 30, 38-39. 43, 72, 94, 97 

1896 Woman's Congress 32. 98 

1906 Suffrage Convention 53,94 

1908 march for women's suffrage 54, 94 

1911 elections: September, October, November 98 

1911 suffrage amendment 7, 9-10 

191 1 suffrage campaign 10-1 1, 40, 45, 55-78, 86, 94, 97-98 
1911 women's eight-hour workday amendment 10, 71 

1912, March 30 78 

1915 cross-country roadster trip 76, 88-89, 98 

1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition 85-86, 88, 

"A Quest for Rights: Woman Suffragists" (1992) 97 

Abbey. The 49 

Adams, Edith 51 

Adams, Mildred 96 

Alameda County, California 40, 42 

Alameda, California 76 

"Along the Suffrage Trail" (1969) 98 

Amendment number 6 (1896) 47 

Amendment number 8 (191 1) 68 

American Federation of Labor 10 

American History 98 

American Revolutionary' War 9, 1 1 

Ames, Rev. C. G. 24 

Anglin, Margaret 87 

"Annie Laurie" 51 

"Another Star" 62-64 

Anthony, Lucy 39 

Anthony, Susan B. 15-17, 20, 24, 30, 37-40, 50-51, 80, 82, 

93-94, 97 
anti-saloon associations 10 

Asians 70-71 

Astrea or Goddess of Justice 24, 26, 97 

Athearn, Mrs. Fred G. 66 

"Aunty Suffridge" 59 

Australia 7,50-51,71 

automobile 10-1 1, 76, 87-89, 94, 98 

Balentine, Catharine Reed 94 

Bancroft Library, Berkeley21. 27-30, 32. 35. 40-45. 47. 49-53. 
60-61, 64, 66, 68, 72, 74-77, 93, 96-100 
Bancroft Way, Berkeley, CA 66 

Bank of Stockton 14,98 

Banner of Progress 93 

Banner, Lois W. 96 

Barnes, Thomas Gordon 98 

Bavaria 62 

Bavarian Girls 63 

Bay Area, San Francisco 72, 93 

Bean, Walton • . 97 

Beers-Stow, Marietta 30, 93-94 

Beeton, Beverly 


Behm)nt, (California) 


Belmont, Mrs. Oliver H. 




Bens, Mrs. S. J. 


Bens, S. J. 


Berkeley Independent 

76, 100 

Berkeley Suffrage Campaign 


Berkeley, California 

40, 42-43, 

, 76, 96 

Berkeley, men o( 


"Berkeley's Mother of Suffrage" 




Bidwell. Anne 


bifurcated skirt 


Black Wednesday 


Blinn. Nellie Holbrook 


Blochman. L. E. 


Blochman, Mrs. L. E. 




Blue Liner roadster 


, 76, 97 

Blum, Mrs. 


Board of Equalization, S 

an Francisco 


Boissevan, Inez Milhoulland 


Bonx for Liberty 


Boye, Bertha 


Brandt, Susan L. 


Brown, Mr. (Santa Cruz 

registrar of voters) 


Brown, Mrs. Walter 


Brown, Walter 


Buck, Rev. Florence 


Buell, Dora Phelps 


Bunker, Mrs. Frank F. 


"Buy a Broom" 

62-64, 98 



California Club 


California Equal Suffrage Association 49, 54, 60, 64-65 

California Equal Woman's Suffrage Association 55 

California Historian 98 

California Historical Society 20, 31, 39, 54, 98-99 

California History 97 

California State Fair 76 

California State Library, Sacramento 71, 78, 100 

California State Senate 14 

Califon\ia Sunday Mercury 21,93 

California Woman Suffrage Association 24, 30 

California Woman's Congress Association, 1895 31-32 

California Woman's Suffrage Association20, 27, 51, 55, 65, 93 
California Women: A Guide to their Politics {1885-191 1) 96 
California, Northern 40, 97 

California, Southern 40, 45 

Call, The 9, 13, 36, 69, 74-75, 79-84, 89, 93, 96-97 

Camm, Chas. 76 

Camm, Mrs. Chas. 76 

Canada 7, 71 

Carlisle, Elinor 76 

Carrie Can 96 

Catt, Carrie Chapman 39, 82, 96 


The Sixth <Star 107 

Caughey, John 

Central Trades and Labor Council 

Century Club, The 

Century Hall 

Century of Struggle 

Chandler, Dr. Robert 

Cheney, Warren Co. 

Cherny, Robert 

Chicago Columbian Fair (1893) 

Chicago, Illinois 



"Clara Shortridge Foltz: Pioneer in the Law" (1979) 

Clay Street, San Francisco 

cleaning up the world of politics 

Cleaveland, Mrs. N 

Cleaveland, N. 

Cleland, Robert Glass 

Coffin, Lillian Harris 

Coggins, Mary W. 

College Equal Suffrage League 11, 61, 

College Settlement, New York City 

Collins, J. A. 

Collins, Mrs. 

Colorado 7, 35, 38, 

Columbian Fair, Chicago (1893) 

Committee on Platform and Resolutions 

Comirum Sense 

community property rights of husband and wife 

Congress, U.S. 30,71, 

Congressional Record: 63rd Congress ( / 9 / 3- / 9 H) 98 

Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage 85-86, 90 

Constitution, U. S. 30, 7 1 , 90, 93-96 

Consumers' League 50 

Cooper, Hattie 33 

Cooper, Sarah B. 31-32,37,99 

Corbett, Dr. 96 

Corbett, Mrs. 24 

Court of Abundance 85, 87, 88, 90, 91 

"cow counties" 45 

Craft, Mabel Clare 51 

Crane and Curtis 27 

Cullen-Dupont, Kathryn 96 

Cummins, Ella Sterling 6, 15, 93, 95, 98, 100 

Curtis, Ceilia 27 

Curtis, Celia 24 

Curtis, Leila 27, 97 

Curtis, Mary 27, 97 

Cuthbert, Mrs. Lucius M. 86 

Davis, Reda 96 

de Young, Michael 96 

de Young, Mrs. M.H. 86 

Dean, Mrs. Robert A. 76 

Democratic Party 14, 38, 88 

Denmark 7, 71 

Dickinson, Anna 14, 24 

druggists 95 

Edwards, 0. Thomas 97 

Eighty Years and More Reminiscences: 1815-1897 96 


election; October 10, 1911 



30, 40, 42, 


58-59, 66, 


, 86. 94, 97-99 

30, 33, 94 

Elizabeth Cady Stanton 



Elliott, Albert 



Elliott, Dr. Chas. 



Elliott, Mrs. Chas. 



Empire State Suffrage Campaign 






Englander, Sue 


94-95, 97 

English suffrage movement 



English working people 



Equal Suffrage Map, 1909 


) 97 




Evans, Sara M. 



Eyster, Nellie Blessing 



Failure is Impossible 



Fair Women, The 





54-55, 94 

Farnham, Eliza 





-77, 96-97 

Field, Sara Bard 



. 88. 90. 98 


Fifteenth Amendment (to the 

U.S. Constitution) 






Firor, Anne 



First Spiritualist Union 



Fisher, PM. 



Fletcher, Mrs. A.T. 



Flexner, Eleanor 



Flying Spur Press 


87, 94, 98 

Folsom Street, San Francisco 


Foltz, Clara Shiirtridge 10, 40. 44-45, 94, 96-97 

"Clara Shortridge Foltz: Pioneer in the Law" (1979) 97 

ForfRminer, The 64 

Forteenth Amendment (to the U.S. Constitution) 93 

Fourth District Court 94 

Fowler, Mrs. George 86 

Fowler. Robert Booth 96 

Franklin Street. San Francisco 30, 94 

Frost. Elizabeth 96 

Fry, Amelia 98 

Gaden, Minnie V. (Mrs. George T.) 3 1 

Gale &. Blocki 95 

Garrett, Mary 37 

Gazeteer 97 

Gegnoux. Claude 76 

Gegnoux. Mrs. Claude 74 

General Depot, Chicago 95 

Georgiaiui B. Kirby: Feminist Reformer of the West 97 

Gerberding, Elizabeth 78 

Gerst, Mrs. Garrison 31 

Gilman. Charlotte Perkins 31,33. 62-64, 72 

gold and blue 54 

gold rush 10 

Golden Gate Hall, San Francisco 47 

Golden Gate Kindergarten Association 33 

Gompers, Samuel 10 

Goodrich, Mrs. Knox 10, 37 
Gordon, Laura de Force 10, 14, 20, 45, 93-94, 97-99 

governors of suffrage states 87 

108 The Sixth Slar 

Grant, Ulysses S. 

Griffith, Elizabeth 

Grimes, Alan P. 

Haight, Mrs. Geo. W. 

Haight, Mrs. Samuel C. 

Haight, Samuel C 

Hall, Anna Calvert 

Hall, Dr. 

Hall, Leola 

Hall, Mrs. C. C. 

Hall, Mrs. W. E. 

Hamlin, Sarah Dix 

Harland, Hester A. 

Harmony Quintette 

Harper, Ida Husted 

Harper, Winifred 

Hastings College of the Law 

Hastings Law Journal (1979) 

Hastings School of the Law 

Hayes Street, San Francisco 

Hays, Mary 

Hayward, Miss 

Hazeltine, Mrs. 

Hearst, Phoehe 

Hearst, William Randolph 

Hesperian, The 

Hester Harland Lambert papers 

Hindoos (sic) 













42-43, 66, 76 


37, 39, 96-97 









10, 30, 86 





Historical Society of Southeni Califunua Quarterly (1943) 97 
History Center, San Francisco Main Library 4, 7, 23-24, 

28, 33, 55, 57-59, 65, 67, 70-71, 85-87, 91-92, 98- 

Holmes, Mrs. 76 

Hotel Nadeau 42 

Hotel Shattuck 76 

House of Representatives, U. S. 28, 65, 80, 87 

How We Won the Vote in 1911 4, 7, 28, 57, 59, 

65, 94, 96-97, 98-99 
Howe, Abhie C. 49 

Howe, Julia Ward 30 

Hutchinson, Nellie 24 

Iceland 7,71 

Idaho 7, 59-60 

Illinois 59 

In HtT Own Right 96 

"In the Van: Spiritualists as Catalysts for the California 

Women's Suffrage Movement" (1994) 97 

Independent Party, The 14, 93 

Indians 71 

lonis, Mrs. M.E. 51 

Ireland 7 

Irving, Benoni 27 

Irving, Leila Curtis 27, 97 

Irwin, Inez Harper 96 

Isle of Man 7,71 

Issel, William 97 

Italy 87 

J.W Leavitt & Co. 89 

Jailed for Freedom 88,96,100 

James, Mrs. 

James, Prof E.O. 

Janess Miller Moiuhly 

Janess Miller. Anna 


Jewish women 




"Jewish Women Pioneers in California History" (1987) 96 

Johnson, Hiram 30 

JoUiffe, Frances 88, 90 

Jordan, David Starr 51 

jubilee banquet, 191 1 59 

Kansas 7 
Keith, Mary McHenry 10, 37, 40-41, 51-52, 66, 76, 94 

Keith, William 40 

Kendall, Florence 50 

Kent, Congressman William 82 

Kent, Mrs. William 82, 86-87 

Kentucky 59 

Kibbe, Dr. Minora 50 

Kindberg, A.M. 88, 90 

Kindstedt, Ingebore 88, 90 

King, Dr. Cora Smith 86 

Kirby, Georgiana Bruce 10, 15, 65, 97 

Koshland History Center, San Francisco Main Library 98 

Labor Archives and Research Center 98 

"Labor Is Worship" 26 
labor union movement 10, 69-71, 73, 98 

labor's support for suffrage 69 

LaRue, Louise 69 

Laughlin, Gail 59, 87 

Law Library of City Hall, San Francisco 97 

Leavitt, J. W. & Co. 89 

legislators, state 55, 94 

Lemmon, Mrs. J.G. 50 

Lester, Lisle 93 

Levenson, Roger 97 

Lewis and Clark expedition 52 

Lily magazine 34 

Lincoln-Roosevelt Leagues 10, 97 

Lindesy, Estelle Lawton 82 

liquor consumption 46, 59, 62 

liquor industry 8-9, 47, 74, 97 

Lloyd, Mrs. Robert 5 1 

Lockwood, Belva 30, 94 

Longley, Margaret V. 42 

Los Angeles, California 45, 53, 76, 82 

Lux, Miranda 10, 33 

Lyne, J. Gregg 97 

Mackrille, Ida Finney 87 

Madden, Mrs. John 51 

"March of the Women, The" 90, 92, 98 

Marin County, California 30, 49 

Marino, Katharine 98 

"Marseillaise" 85, 90. 98 
"Mary Curtis Richardson: An American Woman Artist" 97 

Massachussetts 59 
"Maud Younger and the San Francisco Wage Earner's Suffrage 

League: Standing Firmly tor Working Class 


The Sixth (Star 109 


McHenry/Ponds/ Keith papers 


McCan, Mrs. 


McCarthy, Patrick 


McClees, Sarah A. 


McComas, Hon. J. E. 


McCuUock, Katherine Waugh 


McGee, Mrs. 


McGibney, David A. 


McLean, Fannie 


men's auxiliary, Votes-for-Women Club 


Mill Valley, California 


Miller, Anna Janess 


Miller, Elizabeth Smith 


Milrod, Patience 


Montgomery Street, San Francisco 


Moore, Dr. Dorothea 


Moore, Mrs. Elia 


Mosher, Mr. 


Mosher, Mrs. 


Mount Tamalpais 


Murcott, Ada L. A. 


Murray, Elizabeth 


hla'Amat Woman 


Narell, Irena 


Natal (South Africa) 


National American Woman Suffrage Association 


national campaign 


National Suffrage Association 

30, 37, 96 

National Woman Suffrage Assix:iation 


National Woman's Party 


Nationalist Clubs 




Nevada City, California 


New Jersey 


new voters 


New Woman Publishing Company 


New York City 


New York state 


New Zealand 


Newport, Gussie 


Nicol, John 


Nicol, Mrs. John 


Nineteenth Amendment (to U.S. Constitution) 



, 90, 94-96 

North, Mrs. 




Notable American Women 


Oakland, California 22, 

54-55, 94 

"Ode to the Farmers who Voted a Majority for Us" 




O'Donnell, Minna 




Qjie Half the People: The Fight for Woman Suffrage 


Pacific Coast Woman's Congress Association 

Pacific Coast Woman's Press Association 

Pacific Moiuhly 

Palace Hotel, San Francisco 

Palo Alto, California 

Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 1915 

parade, Washington, D.C. 


Parkinson, R. R. 

Parks, Alice 

Parrot Building, San Francisco 

Patch, Suzanne R. 

Paul, Alice 

Pellet, Sarah M., M.D. 

Peri Portraits 

Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington D.C. 

Perry, Mrs. 


Peterson, Agnes 

petition to Congress 

petition, statewide 

Pine Street, San Francisco 

Pinther, Mrs. Theodore, Jr. 

Pinther, Mrs. Theodore, Sr. 

PioJiter, The 

Pomona, California 

85-86, 88, 
71,86-S8,96, 100 

"Organizing for Woman Suffrage in Labor's City: The Wage 
Earner's League's Unique Role in the 1911 
Campaign in San Francisco" (1986) 98 

Our City 96 

Overland car 89, 90 

Ponds/McHenry/Keith papers 32, 35, 40-41, 49-52, 96-97, 99 

"Portia of the Pacific" 45 

Portland, Oregon 52 

Powers, Laura Bride 49 

precinct positions 78 

presidential primary election 78 

Presidio, San Francisco 94 

Printers' Union 69 

printing 27 

Probate Confiscati(m 30, 93 

Probate Court system, California 30, 93 

Progressive movement 10 

Providence, Rhcxie Island 90 

publishing 97 

Quakers 14, 90 

Rader, Phil 73, 100 

Republican Party 54-55, 88, 94 

Reynolds, Mrs. J.M. 50 

Richardson, Mary Curtis 27, 97 
"Mary Curtis Richardson: An American Woman Artist"97 

Richardson, Thomas 27 

Richmond, California 76 

Rickoff, Bertha Monroe 83 

Rider, Mrs. 24 

roadsters 76. 88-89. 98 

Roberts, Margaret 86 

Rodes, Donald Waller 96 

S-3507 (suffrage amendment) 80 

Sacajawea 52 

Sacramento, California 38, 73, 76, 1(X3 

safety 34 

Sally Ann's Experience 50 

110 The Sixth Star 


San Francisco 7-10, 16, 20-27, 30-34, 37, 40, 
47, 49. 51. 58-59, 65. 69. 71, 73-76. 86, 90-98 

San Francisco 1865-1932 97 

San Francisco Associated Charities 33 

San Francisco Bay Area 72, 93 

San Francisco Bulletin 73, 82. 90. 92. 100 

San Francisco Chronicle 9, 16-18, 75. 96-97. 98 

San Francisco County', California 40, 42 
San Francisco Examiner 9. 37-38. 46, 75, 96-97, 99 

San Francisco Woman Artists Association 94 

San Francisco: bicycle craze 34 

San Francisco: earthquake and fire, 1906 53. 94. 97 

San Francisco: economy 10 

San Francisco: Labor Day parade, 1911 10 

San Francisco: liquor industry 8-9. 47. 74, 97 

San Francisco: Main Library 4, 7, 23-24. 28. 33. 55. 
57-59, 65. 67. 70-71. 85-87. 91-92. 98-100 

San Francisco: politics 97 

San Francisco: population 9 

San Francisco: seat of California women's movement 7 

San Francisco: Union Square 30 

San Francisco: voter registry 78. 94, 98 

San Francisco: voting records 97 

San Francisco: working class neighborhoods 69 

San Joaquin County 14. 93 

San Joaquin County: Independent Party 14, 93 

Sanborn. Mrs. Frederick O. 86 

Santa Clara. California 45 

Santa Cruz Historical Society 97 

Santa Cruz Sentinel 1 5 

Santa Cruz. California 15. 65, 93. 97 

Sargent. Elizabeth 30 

Sargent. Ellen Clark 10. 28. 29, 39, 86. 97 

Sargent. George 29 

Sargent. Senator Aaron A. 29, 86, 94. 97 

Sargent. Shirley 96 

Satterwhite. Mrs. Preston 86 

Saturday Evening Mercury 93 

Sawkins. T. G. 50 

Schenck, Elizabeth 24, 91 

Schlesinger, Julia Stevens Fish 22 

Schloss, Mrs. Aaron C. 66, 76 

Schram, Fred C. 76 

Schram, Mrs. Fred C. 76 

Schulz. Mrs. A. M. 91 

Scotland 7, 71 

Scott, Andrew W. 96 

Scott, Mrs. Irving M. Jr. 66, 76 

Sears, Mrs. T. B. 66 

Senate, U. S. 79-80, 94 

Severance, Caroline 10 

Shafroth amendment 80, 98 

Shafroth, Senator John F (Colorado) 80, 98 

Shaw. Dr. Anna H. 37. 39 

Shereman. Beatrix 82 

Sherr. Lynn 96 

Sherwood. H. H. 76 

Sherwood, Mrs. H. H. 76 

Shortridge. Charles 96 

Sierra Heritage 
silver strikes 
"Sixth Star" 
Sketch Club. The 
Slocum. Amanda 
Slocum. William 
Smith. Mrs. E. O. 
Smyth. Ethyl 
Snook, Dr. John 
Snook, Mrs. John 
Social Science Cooperator 
Solomons. Theodore 
Sobmons of the Sierra 


Solomons, Selina4, 7, 10. 23. 39. 57-59, 65. 94, 96-97, 98-99 

"Song ot Free Women" 85, 87 

Sorbier, Louise Agatha Josephine Bacon 31, 98 

Southard, Dr. W E 76 

Southard, Mrs. W. E 76 

Sou'i'ng Good Seeds 97 

special session, California legislature 94 

Sperry, Mary 10. 78 

Spiritualism 22, 26. 65. 93. 97 

Spreckels, Claus 74 

Spreckels, John D. 74 

Stanford, Jane 10 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 15-17. 20. 24, 34, 93, 96 

State Constitution. California 38 

state league 76 

state senate, California 93 

state suffrage association, California 24, 93 

Stephens, Governor William (California) 94 

Stevens, Doris 96 

Stevens, Emily Pitts 10, 15, 20-22, 24, 93, 97 

Stockton, Bank of 14,98 

Stoddard, Mrs. Florence Jackson 50 

Stoi-y of the Files 6, 15, 73, 95, 98, 100 

Suffrage Amendment S-3507 80 

suffrage auto parade 76 

suffrage bazaar 59 

suffrage movement: continuity of leadership 10 

Suffrage Union 80 

suffragist banner 11. 35, 62-64 

Sunday Mercury 93 

Susan B. Anthony Amendment 80, 82. 94 

Sutter Street. San Francisco 51. 58 

Sweden 7. 71 

Swift. Mary 37 

Swinnerton. Jimmy 46 

Tasmania 7. 71 

Tator. Nellie C. 93 

Taylor. Lucretia N. 50 

Teal. Mrs. 42 

telephone 10-11 
"The California Woman Suffrage Campaign of 1911" (1974) 

The Call 9, 1 3, 36, 69, 74-75. 79-84. 89. 93. 96-100 

The Carrier Dove 22. 23 

The Fair Women 97 

The Girl fr(m\ Colorado 59 



The Stxlh Star 111 

"The Hand that Rocks the Cradle Rears the Patriot" 32 

The Ufe and Work of Susan B. Anthony 96-97 

"The Lincoln-Roosevelt League" (1943) 97 

"The Matriarchate" 58 

The Mew American Woman (1916-1918) 97 

The Puritan Ethic and Woman Suffrage 96 

The Right to be People 96 

The Story of the Woman's Party 96 

The Western Woman 49, 96 

The Yellow Ribbon 94, 96 

Therkelsen, Mary Cachot 86 

Thompkins, Mrs. Perry- 76 

Thompkins, Perry' 76 
Thomdike, Mrs. E.R 24, 26, 97 

Threldkeld, Mary E. 42 

Tingley, Marion 97 

Toledo, Ohio 89 

typesetters 93 

Uncle Sam 80, 84 

Union Labor Party 69 
Utah 7, 35, 59, 60 

Van Pelt, Mrs. Ada 31 

Van Valkenhurg, Mrs. 93 

Votes-for-Women 60, 94 
Votes-for-Women Club 58-59, 94 

Votes -for-Women poster 61 

Wage Earner's League 98 

Wage Earner's Suffrage League 69, 98 
waitresses 69, 71, 73 

Waitresses' Local #48 69,71 

Wakelee & Co., druggists 95 

Wales 7,71 
Wallis, Sarah 10, 24, 93 

Warren Cheney Co. 76 

Washington (state) Equal Suffrage Association 49 

Washington state 7, 59, 97 
Washington, D. C. 29, 79, 86-90, 94 

Waterman, Dr. Helen 66 

Watson, Elizabeth Lowe 65 

Watson, Mrs. E. S. 76 

Weimann, Jeanne M. 97 

Welland, C. R 76 

Welland, Mrs. C. R 76 

West Berkeley, California 76 

West Coast Journal 27,98 

West Coast suffrage societies 94 

West Coast Woman's Congress Association 32 

West Coast Women's Congress 33 

Western Woman 49 

Western Woman, The 96 

White House, The 89 

White, Ruth 82 

Whitney, Anita 86 

Wilderness to Empire 97 

Williamson, M. Burton 42 

Willys-Overland Co. 89-90 

Wilson, Mayor of Berkeley 76 

Wilson, President Woodrow 87-88 

Winning Equal Suffrage in California 97 

Winston Way, San Francisco 98 

Witter, Elizabeth 76 

Woman and Econonucs 72 

"Woman and Government" 32 

"Woman and the Ballot Number" 93 

Woman Artists Association, San Francisco 94 

Woman Lawyers' Bill 45. 94 

Woman Suffrage and Politics 96 

Woman Suffrage Association 42 

Woman Suffrage Association, California 24 

Woman Suffrage Association, National 24, 96 

Woman Suffrage Party 67 

Woman Suffrage State Headquarters 35 
Woman Vote in the West: The Woman Suffrage 

Movement 1869-1896 96 
Woman Voters' Convention 82, 86-88, 90, 94 

Woman Voters' Demonstration 85 

Woman's Congress, 1895 58 

Woman's Congress, 1896 32 

Woman's Congresses 72, 94, 97-99 

Woman's Herald of Industry 94 

Wtiman's Political Party 88 

Woman's Publishing Company 21, 93 

Woman's Socialist Union 50 

Woman's Suffrage AsscKiation 4 3 

Woman's Suffrage in America 96 

Woman's Suffrage Society, San Francisco 24-25 

women and bicycles 34, 89 

women artists 94 
women lawyers 14,45,93-94,97 

Women Printers in Northern California 97 

Women's Co-operative Printing Union 21-22, 27, 93 

Women's Press Association 3 3 

working women 70-71, 73, 93 

World Federation of Women's Clubs 33 

World's Parliament of Religions 94 

VCTA Art Research 97 

Wrights Hall 43 

Wyoming 7, 35, 59-60 

Yelhyw Ribbon, The 94, 96 

yellow silk rose boutonniere 40 
yellow; the color 40, 47, 76, 94, 96 

Yosemite Valley 59 

Young, Carrie 27 

Young, Mrs. S.R.M. 86 

Younger, Maud 69-71,86,98 
"Maud Younger and the San Francisco Wage Earner's 
Suffrage League: Standing Firmly for Working 

Class Women" 98 

Zemansky (S.R Voter Registrar) 78 

m The Sixth SLar 


nmu imb «■ 
in « 
• sw men » 
cm wu R wmn 

The (Sixth (Star 

• •*•••• 


Ord Street Press • 71 Ord Street • San Francisco, CA 94114 

ISBN 0-9669913-1-1 

Printed In Canada